You are currently viewing 12th English Guide Lesson 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona

12th English Guide Lesson 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona

12th English Guide Lesson 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona

TN 12th English Solutions Prose Chapter 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona

12th Standard English Lesson 1 Book Back Question and Answers. 12th English Lesson 1 Prose Two Gentlemen of Verona Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf. 12th English All Lesson Book Back Answers.

12th English Guide Lesson 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona

Warm up

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Paragraph Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Prose Chapter 1

1. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each based on your understanding of the story.

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Paragraph Question (a)

Who did the narrator meet at the outskirts of Verona?


  • The Narrator met Nicola and Jacopo at the outskirts of Verona.

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Questions And Answers Question (b)

Why did the driver not approve of the narrator buying fruits from the boys?


  • The fruit vendors were shabby in their appearance. So, the driver did not approve of the narrator’s idea of buying fruits from them.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Questions And Answers Question (c)

The boys did not spend much on clothes and food. Why?


  • The boys had to save every penny towards the weekly medical bill of their sister Lucia. So, they did not spend much on the clothes and food.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Book Back Answers Question (d)

Were the boys saving money to go the States? How do you know?


  • No, the boys did not save the money to go to States. The boys themselves admit that they have other plans.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Summary 12th English Question (e)

Why did the author avoid going to Lucia’s room?


  • The author did not want to disturb the privacy of the family party and the sense of pride the boys had in supporting their elder sister.

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Book Back Answers Question (f)

What was Lucia suffering from?


  • Lucia was suffering from tuberculosis of the spine.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Paragraph Pdf Question (g)

What made the boys join the resistance movement against the Germans?


  • The boys hated the Germans who had destroyed their town and killed their father. So, they joined the resistance movement against the Germans

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Class 12 Questions And Answers Question (h)

What made the boys work so hard?


  • They did not want charity from the hospital. The determination to save the life of their sister made the boys work hard.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Paragraph Question (i)

Why didn’t the boys disclose their problem to the author?


  • The little boys did not want sympathy but any work which would fetch them money. So, they did not disclose their problem to the author.

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Summary Additional Questions

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Question (a)

What were the two boys selling?


  • The two boys were selling wild strawberries.

The Two Gentlemen Of Verona Question Answer Question (b)

What were the boys doing at night in a deserted square?


  • The boys were resting on the stone pavement in the windy and deserted square beneath the street light. They were waiting for the last bus from Padua to sell the unsold newspapers.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Question Answers Question (c)

How did the boys impress the narrator?


  • Both the boys were cheerfully ready to work. In their boyish faces, there was a seriousness which was far beyond their years.

The Gentlemen Of Verona Question Answers Question (d)

What did the boys do other than selling fruits?


  • The boys shined shoes, hawked newspapers, conducted tourists round the town and ran errands in addition to selling fruits.

2. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each.

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona In Tamil Question (a)

Describe the appearance of Nicola and Jacopo.


  • One boy had worn Jersey and cut-off khaki pants. The other had a shortened army tunic gathered in loose folds about his skinny frame. They had tangled hair and dark earnest eyes.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Answers Question (b)

What were the various jobs undertaken by the little boys?


  • The little boys sold wild berries. They shined shoes. They showed visitors through the town to Juliet’s tomb and other places of interest. They even booked a seat for the narrator in a theatre and got American cigars too.

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Story In Tamil Question (c)

How did the narrator help the boys on Sunday?


  • The author took the boys in his car to a tiny village called Poleta,set high upon a hill. He drove the car up to a large red-roofed villa. The boys asked the author to come there after an hour and went inside.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Class 12 Question (d)

Who took the author to the cubicle?


  • Attained nurse who was very familiar with Nicola and Jacopo took the narrator in. She led him through a cool, tiled vestibule into the hospital, the villa had become. She left him at the door of a little cubicle from where he can watch unseen Nicola and Jacopa chatting with their ailing sister.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Question Answers Pdf Question (e)

Describe the girl with whom the boys were talking to in the cubicle.


  • Lucia was a girl of about twenty. She was propped up on pillows wearing a pretty lace jacket. Her eyes were soft and tender.

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Synonyms And Antonyms Question (f)

Recount the untold sufferings undergone by the siblings after they were rendered homeless.


  • The boys and their sister were thrown in the streets. Lucia had to give up her singing lessons. They had suffered horribly from near starvation and exposure to the cold winter. Lucia developed tuberculosis of the spine. The boys built a home from the rubbles. They had to admit Lucia in a nursing home. To pay the weekly medical bill, they worked from dawn to midnight doing odd jobs eating very little.

12th Two Gentlemen Of Verona Question (g)

The narrator did not utter a word and preferred to keep the secret to himself. Why? Substantiate the statement with reference to the story.


  • After coming out of the hospital the boys sat beside the narrator. Throughout the 30 km ride, they did not say a word. The narrator did not say a word because he wanted the boys to feel that their sacrifice and sufferings remained a secret. However, the narrator was touched by the devotion of the little boys.

Additional Questions

Two Gentlemen Of Verona Notes Pdf Question (a)

Why was the narrator tempted to ask if the brothers wanted to emigrate to America?


The boys earned a lot of money doing odd jobs from dawn to midnight. Yet, they spent little on clothes and food. This tempted the narrator to ask the boys if they had plans to emigrate to America.

Gentlemen Of Verona Question Answers Question (b)

How did the narrator gather information about Nicola and Jacopo without meeting Lucia?


  • The author could not bear to intrude upon the happy family party. Yet, he wanted to know everything about the boys. So, he requested the nurse to tell him all she knew about them. She did share all she knew about Nicola and Jacopo with the narrator.

3. Answer the following in a paragraph of 100-150 words each.

Question (а)

What was the driving force that made the boys do various jobs?


  • In the war-hit Verona everything was difficult. Food had become scarce and dear. The hospital which offered to treat Lucia was forced to charge a weekly fee. Work was scarce. But the boys were determined to save the life of their beloved sister. After the untimely death of the father
  • in the war, the two little boys Nicola and Jacopo took the responsibility of earning money by doing all odd jobs for defraying the medical expenses for their sister on their tender shoulders. They spent very little on their food and clothes. The driving force behind their selfless sacrifice and hard work from dawn to midnight was the love they had for their elder sister. They wanted her to get well soon and become an accomplished singer in life. Once you set a goal far above your capacity but work hard ceaselessly, you are bound to achieve it.

Question (b)

How was the family affected by the war?


  • Before the war, Nicola and Jacopo’s widowed father was a well-known singer. He was killed in the early part of the war leaving Lucia, his daughter behind to take care of the little boys. Shortly after a bomb destroyed their home. The three children were thrown into the streets. They had always known a comfortable and cultured life. Lucia was training to become a singer. Suddenly they were uprooted from their cozy life. They had suffered from near starvation and exposure to cold winter. The home they rebuilt from the rubbles was not weather-proof. The boys joined the secret services of resistance moment as they hated Germans. When they returned home after the war, they found their sister affected by tuberculosis of the spine. They persuaded a private hospital to take Lucia in. Every week they worked hard to pay for their sister’s medical expenses. To achieve it they had to sacrifice a lot.

Question (c)

Write a character sketch of Nicola and Jacopo.


  • Nicola was 13 and Jacopo only 12. They were brothers. They were tanned, had tangled hair and dark earnest eyes. Though they were just kids, they were serious about their work. They did hundreds of errands for the tourists. They were found doing brisk business shining shoes or selling wild berries. They had the skill to find seats in theater for the tourists and also guide the tourists through many important sites of the city of Verona such as Juliet’s tomb. Jacopo was lively as a squirrel. Nicola’s smile was steady and engaging yet in their innocent faces one could find seriousness far beyond their years. What struck one was the extreme willingness of both the boys to work. Under the scorching Sun, they hawked newspapers. When the narrator enquired what they did with the money they earned as they were not spending it on clothes or food or saving it for emigrating to America, Nicola coloured but he did not reveal the secret family adversity. Both are gentlemen because they did not want any one’s sympathy.

Question (d)

What message is conveyed through the story ‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’?


  • Adversity is a touchstone of virtue. Both the little boys resemble tea leaves. Their best essence comes to limelight when they find themselves in hot waters. But they don’t complain. One does not give up on family relations when misfortune strikes. The bond becomes strong as the bond demands selfless sacrifice. The nobility of human life emerges from the precious lessons one learns from the supreme sacrifices of Nicola and Jacopo. One who shoulders the responsibility of taking care of the loved ones, irrespective of age, is an exemplary gentleman worthy of emulation. The primary motivational force of an individual is to find meaning in life. Both the little boys had a specific purpose for their life. They had made up their minds to do what ever work possible to earn money to save their sister and restore her singing career.

Question (e)

Justify the title of the story ‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’.


  • In the story ‘Two gentlemen of Verona’, the two orphan boys Jacopo and Nicola work immensely and exhaustively. They shine shoes, sell newspapers, run errands and show tourists round the city. They take only figs and black tea as food. They save every penny for the medical treatment of their sister Lucia who is suffering from Tuberculosis of the spine. The narrator himself admits that their willingness to work impressed him. They demonstrate an unusual devotion to their work. The objective of their hard work and purpose behind their half-starved daily routine is not known to many in Verona. Anyone may polish shoes or hawk newspapers but it is the magnanimity of heart and nobleness of purpose that actually determines whether one is a real gentleman or a hypocrite. Hence the title ‘‘Two gentlemen of Verona” is justified.

Question (f)

Adversity brings out the best as well as the worst in people. Elucidate this statement with reference to the story.


  • Whenever confronted by an adversity, there is a psychological reaction among most of us. Either fight or flee from it. Even adults run away from crisis and seek asylum or support of others. We find hordes of people, when living becomes difficult, migrate to other places to survive. In the face of adversity, even educated people turn to evil ways. They worked hard from dawn to midnight. They did any job that came their way. They shined shoes, hawked newspapers, sold wild fruits and took the people round the city. They spent very little on their food and clothes. Every week they cycled to Poleta and paid Lucia’s medical bill systematically. In this story, the nurse of the private hospital reveals the bitter truth about the economy of Verona. Jobs are scarce. There is inflation. It is difficult to buy food with limited money. When the hospital laid the condition that the little boys Nicola and Jacopo should pay the weekly medical bill for their sister Lucia’s treatment for tuberculosis, they did not back off or give up. Their best qualities came out during adversity. Like tea leaves, they gave their best while in hot waters.

Question (g)

Which character do you like the most in the story and why?


  • Of all the characters, I like Nicola who is a 13 year old boy (i.e.) one of the two gentlemen of Verona. Though he is small, he is mature beyond his years. Like John Keets, he hated sympathy and self-pity. He does not want any favour except the opportunity to work. He has an engaging smile. He and his brother Jacopo were hardworking and devoted to their sister Lucia. He has seriousness far beyond his years. Even when kindly enquired by the narrator as to why he was spending little on clothes and food, he doesn’t open up. He colours deeply and grows pale. He even avoided the eyes of the narrator. When his squirrel-like brother requested the narrator to send them in his car to Poleta on Sunday, Nicola doesn’t like it. He glares at his brother in vexation and says, “we couldn’t think of troubling you sir.” He wins the respect of all readers because of his maturity, willingness to work and devotion to his sister.


(a) Read the following words taken from the story. Give two synonyms and one antonym for each of these words. Use a dictionary, if required.

12th English Two Gentlemen Of Verona Questions And Answers Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Prose Chapter 1



(b) Homophones and Confusables

Question 1.

Given below is a list of common confusables. Distinguish the meaning of each pair of words by framing your own sentences.


(a) emigrate (leaving homeland) – immigrate (come to live permanently in a foreign country)

Priyanka Chopra does not wish to emigrate to UK where her husband is living. Candidates who wish to immigrate to USA are increasing in number every year.

 (b) beside (at the side of) – besides (in addition to)

I remember keeping my watch beside my glasses.

Besides supporting terrorist outfits within its borders, Pakistan claims innocence in the Pulwana attack.

(c) judicial (relating to justice) – judicious (wise/prudent)

The fraudsters who swindled the money of an IT personnel in Navalur through ATM were taken into judicial custody.

Kalpana reacted judiciously when she realised that a mobile thief was standing next to her.

(d) eligible (Adj.- satisfying the appropriate conditions) – illegible (Adj.- not clear enough to be read)

Even at the age of 30, Vinod is an eligible bachelor for the manager post.

Priya’s handwriting is illegible.

(e) conscience (a person’s moral sense of right and wrong) – conscious (being aware of) “Conscience makes cowards of us all”, said Shakespeare.

The lorry driver was conscious of the dangers involved in carrying the explosives in his truck.

(f) industrial (relating to industry) – industrious (diligent/hardworking)

Perungudi is an industrial block.

Man should be as industrious as ants and bees.

(g) eminent (famous) – imminent (something bad likely to happen very soon)

Every eminent scientist has an unseen past in which he must have struggled to prove his theory or inventions to the world.

Environmentalists are apprehensive of the imminent earthquakes in mega multipurpose projects’ catchment areas as they fall under seismicity-prone areas.

(h) illicit (adj- illegal) – elicit (v – to evoke a response)

Two hundred miners perished after consuming illicit liquor in Bihar.

The police personnel tried to elicit the truth about the murder of the school girl in a pump set from the arrested relative and three other culprits.

(i) prescribed (set down rules) – proscribed (prohibited)

The students were advised to follow the guidelines prescribed by the Directorate of Government Examinations.

The tourists were proscribed from taking selfies from the suicide point in Kodaikanal.

(j) affect (to influence something or someone) – effect (result/impact of something)

The athlete did not imagine that a steroid shot might affect his sports career adversely.

The rising number of cybercrimes proves the adverse effect of educated unemployment.

(k) aural (relating to hearing) – oral (verbal)

In primary schools, teachers must assess the aural skills of children.

There must be a fool-proof mechanism to assess the oral skills of students at the secondary level especially in languages.

(l) born (related to birth) – borne (carried by)

Divya was not born with a silver spoon in her mouth.

The entire village paid homage to army personnel, U. Saravanan’s body which was borne in a decorated coffin by military soldiers and homeguards.

Question 2.

Fill in the blanks with suitable homophones or confusables






























 (c) Give the meanings of the following phrasal verbs and frame sentences using them.

Question 1.

cut off: block the way


The village was cut off due to floods.

Question 2.

I come upon: to meet or encounter unexpectedly


I came upon an old friend in the street today.

Question 3.

put out: extinguish


The firemen put out the fire after a stmggle of six hours.

Question 4.

draw up : halt


Ram drew up his car on seeing the red signal.

Question 5.

pass out: become unconscious


The college student who fell down from the bus passed out and an ambulance was called.

Question 6.

take off: leave the ground


The plane took off two hours late from Delhi due to fog.

Question 7.

turn away : move one’s face away


Whenever I find able-bodied men and women beg in the trains, I turn away.

Question 8.

stand by : ready to substitute


The eleventh player was standing by to play if any player gets hurt or a substitute is needed.

Question 9.

bank on : rely on confidently


We can always bank on our English teacher whenever a debate is announced.

Prefixes and Suffixes

(d) Read the list of words formed by adding suffixes.

frequently           satisfaction         willingness

comfortable       resemblance       nobility

Form two derivatives from each of the following words by adding prefixes and suffixes.





























Listening Activity

Floods are an inevitable natural disaster which can occur in any part of the world. Floods can prove all the more disastrous in localities, where population density is high. Preparation for Disaster Management has become imperative for any city, town or village during monsoons. The Government Department entrusted with Disaster Management makes periodic announcements about the precautions to be taken whenever floods are anticipated.

Now, you are going to listen to the cautionary instructions that are given to the general public living in flood-prone areas. Listen carefully and complete the following sentences. For the attention of the public, here is an announcement from the Department of Disaster Management. As per the warning issued today by the Meteorological Department, there exists a high probability of a widespread heavy downpour from the early hours of Sunday and consequent flooding of low-lying areas. In order to ensure safety of life and property, everyone is hereby warned and advised to take certain precautionary measures:

  • First of all, prepare a household flood plan and be ready to respond to the situation.
  • Find out the locations of the closest flood shelters available and routes to reach them.
  • Maintain an emergency kit comprising water bottles, biscuit packets, medical supplies, a torch light, and a whistle to signal for help.
  • Paste or fix a list of emergency telephone numbers on the wall in a visible spot.
  • Switch off hazardous items like gas cylinders and disconnect electrical gadgets.
  • Secure important personal documents and valuables in a waterproof case and place it in an accessible location.
  • Place small pieces of furniture and clothing on tables and cots.
  • Shift all the small objects safely to the loft.
  • Empty your refrigerators and leave their doors open to avoid damage in case they float.
  • Charge your mobile phones as well as your battery banks so as to communicate with friends, relatives and emergency services.
  • Place sandbags in the toilet bowls and bathroom drain holes to prevent sewage inflow.
  • Prepare and pack food with a long shelf life.
  • Finally, listen to the periodic news updates through your portable communication devices and follow the instructions implicitly.
  1. The announcement was made by the Department of _________
  2. Widespread heavy rains are expected from the early hours of _________
  3. The public is asked to find out the locations of _________
  4. An emergency kit should contain water bottles, biscuit packets and a _________
  5. A list _________ of should be displayed on the wall.
  6. Important documents can be secured by keeping them in a _________ case.
  7. Damage to refrigerators can be avoided by _________
  8. Mobile phones should be charged to enable the marooned to contact their friends, relatives and _________
  9. _________ should be placed in the toilet bowls to prevent sewage inflow.
  10. Listen to the _________ and follow the instructions implicitly.


  1. Disaster Management
  2. Sunday
  3. closest flood shelters
  4. whistle
  5. emergency telephone numbers
  6. waterproof
  7. emptying refrigerators and leaving their doors open
  8. emergency services
  9. Sandbags
  10. periodic news updates

Speaking Activity

Task 1

On the occasion of World Environment Day, you have been asked to deliver a speech during morning assembly on the importance of tree planting. Write the speech in about 100 -150 words.

  • Introduction
  • Suggested value points
  • Pollution control – Medicine – Necessary for wildlife – Cause rainfall
  • Conclusion

Respected Principal, chief guest and dignitaries on the dias and off the dias.

Good evening. I am immensely delighted to speak to you on World Environment Day. All of you know that we celebrate Environment Day on 5th June, every year, let me explain why we celebrate World Environment Day. The relationship between humanity and environment is a delicate balance. Since the industrial revolution, the world’s population has increased exponentially. With the population growth, the environment has been profoundly affected. Deforestation, pollution and global climatic changes are amongst the adverse effects the explosive population and technological expansion have introduced. The main objective of Environment Day is to gain greater understanding of the environment. This enhanced awareness, I believe, will help the country reduce carbon foot prints, increase the use of solar power, reduce and recycle non-biodegradable waste and evolve alternative technologies which would reduce our dependence on fossil fuels.


Moreover, tree planting will be done on a mission modeby school children and college students representing NCC and NSS wings. This would spread the forest cover and give shelter to the wild life and also ensure plentiful rainfall sustaining life on this lovely planet. Student community shall disseminate the urgent need to conserve water and other natural resources. I appeal to the younger generation, I mean my friends to be socially responsive and do their part to preserve the environment.

Task 2

Prepare a speech on “The importance of a reading habit” in about 100-150 words using the hints given below together with your own ideas.

  • Introduction
  • Suggested value points
  • Knowledge enrichment – Skill development – Meaningful usage of time – Overall development
  • Conclusion

Most distinguished chief guest, revered Principal, dignitaries on the dias and off the dias, my beloved teachers and friends. This morning 1 wish to share my views on a man-making habit called ‘Reading’.

Books are the quietest and most constant of friends. They are the most accessible and wisest of counselors and most patient of teachers. Some schools do focus on developing a flair for reading by keeping a library period. Children are allowed to borrow books and also share their observations with their peers after the library hour is over. Such sharing introduces children to the wonder world of books. The art of reading is in great part that of acquiring a better understanding of life from one’s encounter with it in a book. Through reading, one exposes oneself to new things, new ways to solve a problem. Reading is a very useful hobby. Wisemen have lauded the importance of reading and the hobby of reading. Kofi Annan said, “Literacy is a bridge from misery to hope.”

William James said, “So it is with children who learn to read fluently and well. They begin to take flight into whole new worlds as effortlessly as young birds take to the sky.” Dear friends let us read books and conquer the world.


Read the passage given below and make notes.

To match the best cities across the world, the Government of India initiated ‘smart cities’ to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people. The agenda under smart city promises to resolve urban sustainability problems. Urban forests provide a range of important ecosystem services that are critical for the sustainability of cities. Urban forestry, which is defined more as ‘Management of Trees’ contributes to the physiological, sociological andeconomic well-being of the society. Mangroves, lakes, grasslands, and forests in and around our cities, act as sponges that absorb the air and noise pollution and they present themselves as our cultural and recreational hotspots. However, these spots are rapidly being reclaimed” and replaced in the name of development. Presence of urban green has shown to increase the economic value of the place.

Urban forests contribute to reduce the cost of building storm water drain systems for municipalities and neutralizing urban heat island effect. Plants not only provide shade but also help in regulating the micro-climate. They help regulate energy budgets, improve air quality, and curtail noise pollution. Trees, herbs, shrubs and grasses arrest sedimentation and prevent other pollutants from entering our water systems. This will give a chance for our urban lakes and rivers to recover and help improve aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity also gets a boost through the urban forests and helps create corridors connecting the forest areas. High biodiversity areas can also help to build resilient ecosystems. Availability of forests within our urban areas gives an opportunity for children to connect to the natural environment and learn about native species.


1. Agenda of smart cities

Resolve urban sustainability problems-manage trees-urban forestry-psychological and sociological well-being of society.

2. Main advantages of urban forestry

Mangroves, lakes, grasslands and forests-sponges absorbing noise and air pollutants Recreational hotspots-urban green-additive economic value-threat in the name of development.

3. Impact on climate

Reduce cost of storm water drain system-neutralise urban heat island effect-maintains I microclimate.

4. Enhancing environmental health

Regulate energy budget-air quality improved-sedimentation arrested-pollutants prevented I from entering water systems-urban lakes and rivers revive aquatic ecosystems.

5. Biodiversity

Biodiversity enhanced-resilient ecosystems developed-children get connected to natural ‘ environment.



Task 1

Tick the correct options and complete the dialogue.

  1. A: Hello. What do you watch / are you watching?
  2. B: A programme about the Jallian Wala Bagh massacre, which I recorded last night. I study /I’m studying about it this term.
  3. A: All that I know / I’ve known about it is that hundreds of people died / had died in it.
  4. B: Yes, it was much, much worse than anyone has expected / had expected. It went on / has gone on for hours. Do you want / Have you wanted to watch the programme with me?
  5. A: No, thanks. I’ve got to do some veena practice. I’ve just remembered /1 just remembered that we’ve got a concert tomorrow, and I don’t have / haven’t had time to practise my new piece this week.
  6. B: OK. I’ve already done /I already did my practice, so I’ve got time to watch TV. See you later.


  1. are you watching
  2. I’m studying
  3. I’ve known, had died
  4. had expected, went on, Do you want
  5. I’ve just remembered, haven’t had
  6. I already did

Task 2

Complete the sentences with the correct tense form of the verbs in brackets.

  • (a) ________ (tell) me exactly what ________ (happen) last night!
  • (b) Mrs. Mageswari is my Maths teacher. She ________ (teach) me for four years.
  • (c) I ________ (never /think) of a career in medicine before I spoke to my Biology teacher but now I (seriously/ consider) it.
  • (d) Oh no! I ________ (forget) to bring my assignment! What am I going to do? This is the second time I (do) this!
  • (e) I can’t remember what my teacher ________ (say) yesterday about our homework. I (not listen) properly because Hussain (talk) to me at the same time.
  • (f) Last year we ________ (go) on a school trip to Kanyakumari. We (have) a very interesting time.
  • (g) At the moment I ________ (think) about what course to pursue next year but I (notmake) a final decision yet.
  • (h) I ________ (get) up at 7 every morning but this morning I (sleep) for a long time and I ________ (not get) up until 8.


  • (a) Tell, happened
  • (b) has been teaching
  • (c) never thought, am seriously considering it
  • (d) forgot, have done
  • (e) said, was not listening, was talking
  • (f) went, had
  • (g) am thinking, have not made
  • (h) get, slept, did not get

Task 3

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets.

  • (a) Everyone ________ when the earthquake hit the small town, (sleep)
  • (b) Evangelene ________ her job a couple of years ago. (quit)
  • (c) Where ________ your last holidays? (you spend)
  • (d) I think Suresh ________ for Tiruvallur next morning, (leave)
  • (e) I was angry that I ________ such a mistake (make).
  • (f) My mother was tired yesterday because she ________ well the night before (not sleep).
  • (g) Her parents ________ in Coimbatore for two weeks from today (be).
  • (h) Nothing much ________ when I got to the meeting (happen).
  • (i) Scientists predict that by 2050, man ________ on Mars, (land)
  • (J) Sh! Someone ________ to our conversation! (listen)
  • (k) The plane ________ off in a few minutes, (take)
  • (l) They ________ about me when I interrupted their conversation, (talk)
  • (m) Justin and his parents ________ in an apartment right now because they can’t find a cheap house, (live)
  • (n) Rajini Prem’s family ________ in Chengalpet now. (be).
  • (o) Yusuf ________ to the movies once in a while (go)
  • (p) This ________ an easy quiz so far (be).
  • (q) Our team ________ any games last year, (not win)
  • (r) We ________ a wonderful film at the cinema last night, (see)
  • (s) Hurry up! The movie ________ (already begin)


  • (a) was sleeping
  • (b) had quit
  • (c) did you spend
  • (d) left
  • (e) had made
  • (f) had not slept
  • (g) will be
  • (h) had happened
  • (i) will land
  • (j) is listening
  • (k) will take
  • (l) were talking
  • (m) are living
  • (n) is
  • (o) goes
  • (p) has been
  • (q) did not win
  • (r) saw
  • (s) may have already begun

Modal Auxiliaries

Task 1

Fill in the blanks with modal auxiliaries.

  • (a) The candidates ________ answer five out of ten questions.
  • (b) How ________ you open my bag?
  • (c) Tajudeen ________ finish this work by Monday.
  • (d) ________ I go to school today?
  • (e) I wish you ________ tell me the truth.
  • (f) Poonam ________ not catch the bus yesterday.
  • (g) People who live in glass houses ________ not throw stones.
  • (h) You ________ not go to the market as I have brought vegetables.
  • (i) ________ you have taken all this trouble?
  • (j) You ________ be joking.
  • (k) I tried to climb up the tree, but ________ not.
  • (l) Hima Das ran so fast that she ________ win the medal.
  • (m) You ________ lead a horse to water, but you make it drink.
  • (n) I ________ like to have a cup of coffee.
  • (o) My grandfather ________ visit this temple when he was young.


  • (a) should
  • (b) dare
  • (c) can
  • (d) May
  • (e) could
  • (J) could
  • (g) should
  • (h) need
  • (i) Should
  • (j) must
  • (k) could
  • (l) could
  • (m) can, can’t
  • (n) would
  • (o) used to

Task 2

Complete the following sentences with modals using the clues given.

  • (a) You ________ help the needy, (moral obligation)
  • (b) If I were you, I ________ not behave like that, (conditional sentence)
  • (c) I ________ never tell a lie. (determination)
  • (d) My uncle ________ have reached by now. (possibility)
  • (e) to play hockey when I was a student, (past habit)
  • (f) You not attend my class, (order)
  • (h) He come today, (remote possibility)
  • (i) You rollow the traffic rules, (regulation)
  • (j) He play the match, (willingness)
  • (k) You not waste time on it. (necessity)
  • (l) Had the doctor come in time, he have saved the patient.(probability)


  • (a) ought to
  • (b) would
  • (c) will
  • (d) may
  • (e) must
  • (f) used
  • (g) should
  • (h) might
  • (i) should
  • (j) would
  • (k) need
  • (l) would

Reported Speech

Task 1

Read what these people say and rewrite as sentences.

Question 1.

I am very busy.


Raja said that he was very busy.

Question 2.

I have completed my work.


Satya said that she had completed her work

Question 3.

I don’t like to go out.


Johnson said that he didn’t like to go out

Question 4.

I have just come back from Chennai.


Akshita said that she had just comeback from Chennai

Question 5.

I am learning English.


Jayan said that he was learning English

Question 6.

I bought a pen yesterday.


Madhu said that she had bought a pen the previous day

Question 7.

We will go shopping tomorrow.


Joseph and Mary said that they would go shopping the next day

Question 8.

We can’t attend the party.


Afsar and Ayesha said that they couldn’t attend the party

Question 9.

How are you?



Question 10.

I am line. Thank you.


Victor enquired how Victor was replied that he was fine and thanked him

Task 2

Read the following dialogue and complete the report in the space provided.

Question 1.

Priya : Where are you going?

Vijay : I am going to the railway station.

Priya : Why are you going there?

Vijay : I want to receive my uncle who is coming from Bangalore.


Priya asked Vijay : (a) where he was going.

Vijay replied : (b) that he was going to the railway station.

Priya further inquired : (c) why he was going there.

Vijay stated that : (d) he wanted to receive his uncle who was coming from Bangalore.

Question 2.

Teacher : Why are you late?

Divya : I missed the bus.

Teacher : You should have reached the bus stop on time.

Divya : My grandmother is ill. So, I had to take her to the doctor.

Teacher : I am sorry. What ails her?

Divya : She has high fever.

The teacher asked Divya why she was late. Divya replied that ___(a)___The teacher told her that ___(b)___ Divya said that her grandmother was ill so she had to take her to the doctor. The teacher felt sorry and further asked her ___(c)___Divya explained that she ___(d) ___ high fever.


(a) she had missed the bus

(b) she should have reached the bus stop on time .

(c) what ailed her

(d) had

Task 3

Rewrite the following passage in indirect speech.

Pradeep got out of bed with much excitement. “It is going to be a lovely sunny day,” he remarked to his sister Varshini.

I “Just let me sleep a bit longer, Pradeep,” Varshini begged, “and since you are feeling so

enthusiastic,” she suggested, “Why don’t you go and help mother in cooking?”

“Sure, I will”, said Pradeep. “Can I help you, mum?”, he said to his mother.

“Yes, of course. There are idlis and vadas on the dining table. Have your breakfast.”

“Thank you, mum; I’ll surely help you by eating them.”

‘Pradeep got out of his bed with much excitement and told his sister that it was going to be a lovely Sunday. Varshini requested him to let her sleep a bit longer. She added that as he was feeling so enthusiastic he should go and help mother in cooking. Pradeep agreed readily. He asked his mom if he could help her. Mom agreed and asked him to have breakfast adding that there were idlis and vadas on the dining table. Pradeep thanked mom and said that he would surely help her by eating them.


Letter Writing

(a) Read the following letter carefully, discuss with your partner and answer the questions.


I request you o publish the following letter in your daily to address an important issue which needs immediate redressal.

During week ends motorcyclists are seen racing on the East Coast road and the Old Mahabalipuram road of Chennai. The amateur racers are risking their own lives and of the public as well. They are fearless and irresponsible, not knowing the price of human lives. Risking others and their lives for their pleasure is highly condemnable.

Even school students indulge in such activities and cause fatal accidents. The racers have started occupying the lanes and streets of busy localities. As such, the violation of traffic rules often results in loss of young lives. Such reckless riders who violate traffic rules should be punished severely.

As a responsible citizen of the society, I request the authorities concerned to take appropriate measures to put an end to this menace.

Yours truly,



Question (a)

Who is the sender of the letter?


The sender is Srivatsav

Question (b)

Who is the receiver?


The editor of a Newspaper (unnamed).

Question (c)

What is the issue?


Bike racing on the East Coast road and the Old Mahabalipuram road of Chennai is the issue.

Question (d)

What is the request of the sender?


The reckless riders who violate traffic rules must be punished. This is the request of the sender.

Question (e)

Who will take steps after reading it?


The authorities concerned will take steps after reading it.

(b) You have chosen Computer Science in the Higher Secondary Course. Write a letter to your friend giving reasons for your choice. Read the clues given in brackets to complete the letter.

(1) _____ (Greeting),

Hope (2) ______ (enquire about his well being). I would like to (3) ______ Firstly (4) ______ (reason for your choice of group). I wish (5) ______ (state your ambition). We come to hear (6) ______ (discuss recent unhealthy happenings in social media and the society). These have made me (7) ______ (demand or need of this profession). I have plans to pursue (8) ______ (higher studies or specialization).

All the best for your CA preparation.

Convey my (9) ______

Yours lovingly,

(your name)


  1. Dear Ram
  2. you are doing fine
  3. inform you that I have chosen Computer Science stream in eleventh
  4. one has to have sound knowledge of computers and without computer literacy one can’t succeed in life.
  5. to become a Computer Engineer
  6. cyber bullying and sexploitation
  7. understand the need of ethical computer engineers in tackling such issues
  8. Computer Science Engineering in Anna University
  9. kind regards to your parents


(a) You had been to your Grandma’s house during the summer holidays. You enjoyed your stay in her company. Write a letter to your Grandma stating how much you miss her after returning to your home.

Dear Grandma,

I am fine. I hope your health is fine. My stay in your house was really wonderful. You spent a lot of time with me sharing recipes for many delicious dishes. Everyday you prepared curry with vegetables from your own garden. The food you gave was so tasty that I envied my mom who had spent the best part of her life with you. I just love the stories you shared every evening. Grandma, you had herbal remedies for every kind of ailment. I wish I could come again during next summer and stay with you.

Yours lovingly,



  • Savithri
  • 18, Mettu St.
  • Chengalpattu – 603001

(b) You are the head of the English department in a renowned institution. You are invited to preside over the inauguration of the English Literary club in your alma mater. Respond to the letter you have received either accepting the invitation or expressing your inability to attend the function.

Dear Vijaya Sarathy,

Received your invitation. I am really glad to accept your invitation to inaugurate the English Literary Club in the school where I had completed my twelfth standard 15 years ago. Don’t worry about sending a car. I will come in my own car. You can fix any working day in the second week of November.

With Warm

Regards Yours sincerely



  • Vijaya Sarathy
  • Secretary, Literary Club
  • ABC HSS,
  • XXXX

Inability to attend the function

Dear Sarathy,

Received your invitation, I wish I could attend the inaugural meeting of the literary club. It would be such an honour as I have studied in that school. But I need to attend an international conference in Thailand. I will be away during second and third week of October. 1 would recommend you to invite Dr. Sangeetha, a great scholar who has recently done her Ph.D. in Modem Poetry (i.e.) Pudhukavithai. Though she is young, she is a versatile genius and it would be appropriate if you would come and invite her in person. Good luck for the success of the programme.

With Warm Regards Yours sincerely Anjali Head

Dept, of English

ABC College of Arts and Science Chennai – 78.


  • Vijaya Sarathy
  • Secretary, Literary Club
  • ABC HSS,
  • XXXX

(c) Write a letter to the Headmaster of your school requesting him to help you obtain a duplicate mark sheet of class XII, which you lost while travelling.


  • Kavinilavan
  • 18, Gangu Reddy
  • Egmore Chennai To
  • The Headmaster
  • Govt. HSS
  • Nungambakkam

Respected Sir,

Sub: Loss of Twelfth Marksheet

I completed my twelfth in your esteemed school in the year 2016-2017. My reg. no. is 98781. I lost my twelfth marksheet. I request you to kindly guide me to get a duplicate marksheet from the Directorate of Government Examinations at the earliest.

With warm regards.

Yours sincerely



  • The Headmaster
  • Govt. HSS
  • Nungambakkam

(d) Write a letter to AZ Company requesting them to replace the defective juicer that you bought recently. Include the following details: the problem, date of purchase, receipt number, model and warranty.


  • Manimuthu
  • 18, East Street
  • Kulamangalam


  • The Manager
  • A2 Company
  • 18, Dindigul Road
  • Madurai


Sub: Request to replace defective juicer-Reg.

I bought Preethi juicer mixie on 18.02.19 vide bill no. 1781. On reaching home I tried to make apple juice. The juicer rotates but the cut apples were not crushed. I believe this is a mechanical fault. Could you please replace the faulty Preethi juicer with a new one? Photocopies of warranty card and the bill are enclosed.

Yours sincerely



  • The Manager
  • A2 Company
  • Company
  • 18, Dindigul Road
  • Madurai

(e) You wish to become a pilot. Write a letter to a college enquiring about the details of the pilot training course offered by the college. Include the following details in your enquiry: duration of the course, fee structure, scholarships, hostel facilities and placement details.


  • Kathiravan
  • 17, Awaiyar St.
  • K.K. Nagar
  • Madurai – 20


  • The Principal
  • PTC Aviation Academy
  • Chromepet
  • Chennai – 600044


Warm Greetings.

Sub: Enquiry about Pilot training course-Reg.

I saw your advertisement in the Indian Express newspaper about pilot training course yesterday. I would like to become a commercial pilot. Kindly clarify my doubts by answering the following questions.

  1. How long do you conduct the course for the candidates who want to become pilots?
  2. What is the fee structure of the course?
  3. I have 90+ marks in I Group in my +2 Board examinations. Is there any scholarship or concession in fee structure for meritorious candidates?
  4. What is the success rate of placements in your institute for trained pilots?

I shall contact you in person after receiving your information-packed reply.

Yours sincerely



  • The Principal
  • PTC Aviation Academy
  • Chromepet
  • Chennai – 600044

(f) Write a letter to the manager of Waves Furniture Company ordering furniture for a coaching centre. Include the following details: description of the furniture, number of pieces, mode of payment, time and delivery options.


  • Usharani Coordinator
  • NEET Coaching Centre Government Girl’s Hr. Sec. School Egmore


  • The Sales Manager
  • Waves Furniture Company
  • Station Road
  • Nungambakkam
  • Chennai


We need 100 double desks (i.e.) Desk + bench enabling four students to sit comfortably and write at a time. On receipt of the green painted iron double desks, we will make payment through cheque. Delivery can be effected only after personal verification of sample piece tailor-made for our school requirements. You can deliver the pieces before 28th July without fail.

Yours sincerely



  • The Sales Manager
  • Waves Furniture Company
  • Station Road
  • Nungambakkam
  • Chennai

(g) Write an application for the post of Personal Secretary to the Managing Director of a company. Include the following details: Educational qualification, experience, various other qualifications required for the post.


  • Kalaivani, B.Sc.
  • 23, Karameswar Koil St.
  • Saidapet Chennai – 16


  • The Managing Director
  • Mathew Garments Rameshwaram Road
  • T. Nagar Chennai – 17


With reference to your advertisement in The Hindu dated 18.02.19,1 wish to apply for the post of Personal Secretary. I am a Science graduate from Loyola College. I have done my short hand and P.G. Diploma in Human Resource Management. I can take notes and type in the computer at a reasonable speed. I have an experience of working as a part-time Personal Secretary to Shri Ram Chits Company Manager for a period of three years. I have good working knowledge of English and Tamil. I request you to consider my application favourably and send me a call letter. I assure you, I would execute my job to the best satisfaction of my superiors.

With Regards

Yours Sincerely



  • The Managing Director
  • Mathew Garments
  • Rameshwaram Road, T. Nagar
  • Chennai – 17

(h) Write a letter the Editor of a newspaper about the nuisance created by the roadside vendors blocking the pavements and occupying the parking zone.


  • Kalavathi
  • 24, South Car St
  • Madurai


  • The Editor
  • The Hindu
  • Chennai – 2


Sub: Nuisance of vendors in roads and parking spaces

Many foot path vendors are blocking the pavements and occupying parking areas in South Car St. and the nearby parking areas. All those vendors who eke out a living may be allotted shops elsewhere to curtail this menace. Kindly publish this in your newspapers so that Madurai corporation and the traffic police may take the necessary action.

Yours Sincerely



  • The Editor
  • The Hindu
  • Chennai – 2


(i) Write a letter to your relative or friend who is admitted in hospital for treatment of jaundice. Advise him/her not to worry about the illness and be positive. Assure him/her of your psychological and financial help during the crisis.

Dear Mala,

Received the letter informing me of your ailment. Jaundice can be cured by herbs very quickly without serious side effects. Sirukurinjan Thalai is a remarkable herb which would expedite the cure. In case you have already started the treatment, don’t worry, if you need money, I will transfer it to your account by NEFT or I can transfer it from my Paytm App.’ Drink only boiled water. Avoid oily and spicy food items. You must take fruit juices to recover completely. Don’t worry, I’m there for you. Get well soon.

With love KuralMathi


  • Mala
  • Meenakshi Nagar
  • Madurai

Two Gentlemen of Verona About The Author

Archibald Joseph Cronin (1896-1981) was a Scottish novelist, dramatist and physician. A.J. Cronin was a doctor by profession and a writer by accident. While recovering from an illness, he started writing his first novel “Hatter’s Castle” and instantly became popular. Many of his stories have emerged from his medical career and are noted for their narrative skill, deep social conscience and finely drawn characters. Cronin’s books were not only bestsellers but some of them were made into successful films and were adapted for radio and television. His novella Country Doctor was adapted for a long running BBC radio and TV series. Drawing inspiration from an early play of Shakespeare, he wrote “Two Gentlemen of Verona”.

Two Gentlemen of Verona Summary in English


‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’ is the story of two young boys, Nicola and Jacopo. The story recounts how the two brothers devoted themselves to a hard and difficult life to earn money for the medical treatment of their sister.She was afflicted with tuberculosis of the spine. The author was impressed by their sincerity and devotion to the cause. They displayed maturity and understanding beyond their years. Their selfless action ‘brought a new nobility to human life and gave promise of a greater hope for human society’.

Nicola and Jacopo – the fruit vendors

Two young boys stopped the narrator on the outskirts of Verona. They were selling wild strawberries. The elder brother Nicola was thirteen while the younger brother Jacopo was nearly twelve. Both were in rags. He was strangely attracted towards them. The earnestness in their eyes touched the narrator. He bought their biggest basket inspite of Luigi’s (his driver) protests.

Doing odd jobs


Next morning, the narrator saw both the brothers bending over shoeshine boxes in the public square. They were doing a brisk business. They not only picked up fruits but also did many other things to earn a living. Often they showed visitors round the town-to Juliet’s tomb and other places of interest. They proved extremely useful to the narrator and his driver Luigi. They could buy a pack of American cigarettes or get seats for the opera. They could be relied upon to satisfy their needs. They shined shoes, sold fruits and hawked newspapers, took tourists round the city and did all odd jobs for others to earn money.

Working till late night

 One night, the narrator saw both the brothers resting on the stone pavement. Jacopo’s head was resting upon his elder brother’s shoulders. He was asleep. It was nearly midnight. Nicola told them that they were waiting for the last bus from Padua. They could sell all their papers when the bus came in there. The narrator thought that they must earn quite a lot. They worked so hard and ate so little. They spent nothing on their clothes. The narrator thought that perhaps they were saving up to emigrate to America. But they had other plans.

A rare privilege

The author was to leave Verona on Monday. He asked the brothers if he could do anything for them before leaving. Jacopo told that every Sunday they made a visit to the country to Poleta, 30 kilometers from there. Usually they hired bicycles to go there. He asked the narrator if he could send them there in his car. Luigi had taken the Sunday off but the narrator replied that he would drive them out himself. The following afternoon they drove to a tiny village. The two brothers came out of the car and went towards a red-roofed villa. They promised to be back within an hour.

Unravelled Mystery

The narrator found a grilled slide entrance. He determinedly rang the bell. A pleasant-looking young woman appeared in the white uniform of a trained nurse.She led him into the hospital. She stopped at the door of a little cubicle. She asked him to look through the glass partition. The two brothers were seated at the bedside of a girl of about twenty. She resembled her brothers. She was listening to their chatter. The nurse asked the narrator to go in. Lucia would be pleased to see him. The narrator did not want to intrude upon that happy family party. He begged the nurse to tell him all she knew about those boys.

Family Destroyed by the War

Nicola and Jacopo were quite alone in the world, except their sister Lucia. Their father was a widower. He was a well-known singer and was killed in the early part of the war. A bomb had destroyed their home and they were thrown into the streets. They rebuilt their house using the rubbles. They suffered horribly. They faced starvation and were exposed to the cold winter. They hated the Germans who brought all these troubles on them. The boys served as secret agents and carried messages about movement of German troops to freedom fighters. When the war was over, they came to their beloved sister. They found her suffering from tuberculosis of the spine.

Love for their Sister

The boys did all that they could do for their ill sister. They brought her to the hospital and persuaded them to take her into the hospital. She had made a lot ofj progress in the last twelve months. It I was hoped that one day she would walk and sing again.Lucia’s brothers paid weekly bills regularly. The narrator was shocked to know the story of the two boys and their sister. He hurriedly came out and waited until the boys rejoined him. He drove them back to the city. They sat beside him and spoke nothing. Even he didn’t say a word to them. He knew they would prefer to feel that they had ‘safely kept their secret’. Their devotion, selfless action and sincerity touched his heart deeply. Their devotion to the cause brought a new nobility to human life. They gave a new hope for humanity.


The selfless hardships bravely faced by the two little brothers of Lucia teach us the meaning of life. The story conveys the message that as long as people are willing to make sacrifices for the well-being of others, there is hope for humanity.

Two Gentlemen of Verona Summary in Tamil


லூசியாவின் சகோதரர்களின் தன்னலமற்ற கடின உழைப்பு மனித வாழ்க்கையின் அர்த்தத்தை நமக்கு உணர்த்தியது. இந்தக் கதையானது பிறரின் நல்வாழ்விற்காக தங்களை அர்ப்பணிப்பவர்கள் உள்ள வரையில் மனித குலம் தழைக்கும் என்ற செய்தியை நமக்கு அளிக்கிறது.அவர்கள் தங்கை முதுகுத்தண்டு புற்றுநோயால் | பாதிக்கப்பட்டிருந்தார். அச்சகோதரர்கள் தன் குறிக்கோளின் மேல் கொண்ட விசுவாசத்தைக் கண்டு | கதையாசிரியர் வியந்து போனார். அவர்கள் வயதிற்கு மீறிய பக்குவத்தைக் கொண்டிருந்தனர். தன்னலமற்ற அவர்களின் சேவை மனித குலத்திற்கே உண்டான | பெருந்தன்மையையும், மனித குலத்தின் மேல் அதிக நம்பிக்கையையும்

கனி விற்பவர்களாக நிகோலாவும், ஜக்கோப்போவும்:

நிகோலா மற்றும் ஜகாப்போ என்ற இரு சிறுவர்களும் கதையாசிரியரை வெரோனா நகர்ப்புறவெளியில் வழி மறித்து நிறுத்தினர். அவர்கள் காட்டு வகை மென்மையான செந்நிற கனிகளை (Wild Strawberries) விற்றுக் கொண்டிருந்தனர். பெரியவன் நிகோலாவிற்கு வயது 13, சிறியவன் ஜகாப்போவிற்கு வயது 12. இருவரும் மிகவும் ஏழ்மை கோலம் பூண்டிருந்தனர். கதாசிரியர் வினோதமாக அவர்களின்பால் ஈர்க்கப்பட்டார். அவர்களின் கபடமற்ற கண்கள் கதாசிரியரை கவர்ந்தன. கதையாசிரியரின் காரோட்டி லூகி மறுப்பு தெரிவித்த போதிலும் அவர் சிறுவர்களிடமிருந்து பெரிய பழக்கூடையை வாங்கிக் கொண்டார்.

கையில் கிடைத்த வேலைகளை எல்லாம் செய்தனர்:

அடுத்த நாள் காலைப் பொழுதில் ஒரு பொது இடத்தில் இரு சகோதரர்களும் பொது மக்களின் காலணியை மெருகூட்டிக் கொண்டிருப்பதைக் கண்டார் அவர்கள் சுறுசுறுப்பாக வேலையில் ஈடுபட்டிருந்தனர் அவர்கள் வாழ்வாதாரத்திற்காக பழம் மட்டும் விற்கவில்லை . மேலும், பல பணிகளை புரிந்து வந்தனர் பல சமயங்களில் அவர்கள் சுற்றுலாப் பயணிகளை ஊரைச் சுற்றிக் காட்டும் விதமாக ஜுலியட் கல்லறை மற்றும் இதரப் புகழ் பெற்ற இடங்களுக்கு அழைத்துக் சென்றனர். இருவரும் கதையாசிரியருக்கும், லூகிக்கும் மிகவும் உதவியாக இருந்தனர். அவர்களுக்கு சிகரெட் வாங்குதல், கலை கச்சேரிக்கு அனுமதிச் சீட்டு வாங்குதல் என எல்லா உதவிகளையும் செய்து வந்தனர் நம்பிக்கைக்கு பாத்திரமானவர்களாக, அவர்கள் தேவைகளை நிறைவு செய்பவர்களாகத் திகழ்ந்தனர் காலணி பாலிஷ் செய்தல், பழங்கள் மற்றும் செய்தித் தாள்களை விற்றல், சுற்றுலா பயணிகளுக்கு ஊரை சுற்றிக் காட்டுதல் மற்றும் இதர கிடைத்த பணிகளைட் புரிந்து பொருள் ஈட்டினர்.

நடுநிசி வரை பணி புரிந்தனர்:

ஒரு நாள் இரவு கதையாசிரியரும், லூகியும், சிறுவர்கள் இருவரும் நடைபாதை கல் ஒன்றின் மேல் அமர்ந்து இருப்பதைக் கண்டனர். ஜகாப்போ அண்ணனின் தோள் பட்டையின் மேல் சாய்ந்து உறங்கிக் கொண்டு இருந்தான். அது நள்ளிரவு நேரம். நிக்கோலா கதையாசிரியரிடம் பதுவாவிலிருந்து வரும் கடைசி பேருந்திற்கு காத்திருப்பதாகக் கூறினான். ஊரைப் பேருந்து அடைந்ததும் அவர்கள் செய்தித் தாள்கள் முழுவதையும் விற்றுவிடுவார்கள். கதையாசிரியர் இச்சிறுவர்கள் கணிசமான தொகையை சம்பாதிக்கக் கூடும் என நம்பினார். அவர்கள் கடுமையாக உழைத்தாலும் உணவிற்காக கொஞ்சமே செலவழித்தனர். துணிகளுக்காக எதையும் அவர்கள் செலவழிக்கவில்லை. அவர்கள் அமெரிக்க நாட்டிற்கு குடிபெயர்வதற்கு சேமிக்கிறார்களா என கதையாசிரியர் சிறுவர்களிடம் விசாரித்தார். ஆனால் சிறுவர்களுக்கோ வேறு திட்டங்கள் இருந்தன.

அரிதான சலுகை:

கதையாசிரியர் திங்கட்கிழமை அன்று வெரோனாவை விட்டு கிளம்புவதாக இருந்தது. அவர் கிளம்புவதற்கு முன் அச் சகோதரர்களுக்கு ஏதேனும் உதவி தேவைப்படுகிறதா எனக் கேட்டார். அதற்கு ஜகாப்போ அங்கிருந்து 30 கிலோ மீட்டர் தூரத்தில் உள்ள பொலேட்டாவிற்கு செல்லவேண்டும் என்றான். பொதுவாகவாடகைசைக்கிளில் செல்வதுதான் அவர்கள் வழக்கம். ஜகாப்போ கதையாசிரியரின் மகிழுந்தில் செல்லும் விருப்பத்தை தெரிவித்தான். லூகிக்கு விடுமுறை கொடுத்து விட்டதால் கதையாசிரியர் தாமே இவர்களை தன் மகிழுந்தில் அழைத்துச் செல்வதாகக் கூறினார். அன்றைய மதிய நேரத்தில் அக்குறுகிய கிராமத்திற்கு பயணத்தை மேற்கொண்டனர். சிறுவர்கள் மகிழுந்தை விட்டிறங்கி சிவப்பு சாயம் பூசப்பட்ட பெரிய பங்களாவுக்குள் நுழைந்தனர். ஒரு மணி நேரத்தில் திரும்பி விடுவதாக வாக்களித்தனர்.

அவிழ்ந்த மர்மம்:

கதையாசிரியர் அந்த பங்களாவில் கம்பிகளாலான வாயிற் கதவைக் கண்டார். ஒரு முடிவோடு அழைப்பு மணியை அடித்தார். அங்கு இளமையான வெண்ணிற ஆடை உடுத்திய செவிலிப் பெண் ஒருவர் தோன்றினார்.

அவர் கதையாசிரியரை மருத்துவமனைக்குள் அழைத்துச் சென்றார். ஓர் தடுப்புச்சுவர் அருகில் கதையாசிரியரை நிற்கச் சொன்னார். கண்ணாடி தடுப்பு வழியாகப் பார்க்கச் சொன்னார். இரு சகோதரர்களும் 20 வயது மதிக்கத்தக்க பெண் ஒருவர் அருகில் அமர்ந்திருந்தனர். அவர் இச்சகோதரர்களின் சாயலில் இருந்தாள். அப்பெண் தம்பிகளின் அரட்டையை இரசித்துக் கேட்டுக் கொண்டிருந்தாள். செவிலிப் பெண் அவரை உள்ளே போகச் சொன்னார். அதற்கு கதையாசிரியர். அவர்களின் சந்தோசமான குடும்ப சந்தோசத்தில் தலையிட விரும்பவில்லை என்றார். செவிலிப் பெண்ணிடம் சிறுவர்களைப் பற்றிய விவரங்களைக் கூறுமாறு வருந்தி வேண்டிக் கொண்டார்.

போரால் சிதைந்த குடும்பம்:

லூசியாவைத் தவிர நிகோலா, ஜகாப்போவிற்கு இந்த உலகத்தில் சொந்தம் என்று கூறிக்கொள்ள எவரும் இல்லை. சிறுவர்களின் அம்மா சிறுவயதிலேயே இறந்துவிட்டார். அவர்களின் தகப்பனார் ஒரு பாடகர். அவர் ஆரம்ப போர் காலத்திலேயே மரணமடைந்து விட்டார். அதன்பிறகு நடந்த ஒரு குண்டு வெடிப்பில் அவர்கள் வீடு சின்னாபின்னமாகிக் போனதால் வீதிக்கு தள்ளப்பட்டார்கள். இடிந்த கட்டிட குவியலைக் கொண்டு மீண்டும் ஒரு வீட்டைக் கட்டினர். அவர்கள் பிறரைப் போலவே கடினமாகப் பாதிக்கப்பட்டனர். பசியையும், குளிரையும் எதிர் கொண்டார்கள். இந்நிலைக்கு தம்மை ஆளாக்கிய ஜெர்மானியர்களை சிறுவர்கள் வெறுத்தனர். இரகசிய உளவுத்துறை உளவாளிகளாகப் பணிபுரிந்து தகவல்களை விடுதலை வீரர்களிடம் தெரிவித்தனர். போர் முடிந்ததும் தன் அன்பார்ந்த சகோதரியுடன் வந்து சேர்ந்து கொண்டனர். தங்கள் சகோதரி முதுகெலும்பு புற்றுநோயால் அவதியுறுவதை அறிந்தனர்.

சகோதரியின்பால் கொண்ட அன்பு:

நோய் வாய்ப்பட்ட சகோதரிக்காக தம்மால் இயன்ற அனைத்தையும் செய்தனர். சகோதரியை மருத்தவமனைக்கு அழைத்து வந்து அவரை அனுமதித்துக் கொள்ள மன்றாடினர். 12 மாதத்தில் அவர் நல்ல உடல்நலம் தேறினார். அவர் மீண்டும் நடக்கவும், பாடவும் செய்வார் என்ற நம்பிக்கை உண்டாயிற்று.

லூசியாவின் வாராந்திர மருத்துவச் செலவினை சகோதரர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொண்டனர். அவர்கள் கதையை அறிந்த கதையாசிரியர் அதிர்ச்சிக்குள்ளானார். அவர் அவசரமாக வெளியே வந்து சகோதரர்களின் வருகைக்கு காத்திருந்தார். அவர்களுடன் மீண்டும் வெரோனா நகரத்திற்கு பயணித்தார். இரு சிறுவர்களும் அவரின் அருகே அமர்ந்து அமைதியாகப் பயணம் செய்தனர். கதையாசிரியரும் ஏதும் பேசிக் கொள்ளவில்லை. அவர்கள் இந்த இரகசியத்தை பேணிக் காக்கவே விரும்புவார்கள் என எண்ணினார். அச்சகோதரர்களின் தியாகம், நம்பிக்கை மற்றும் குறிக்கோள் கதையாசிரியரை உருகச் செய்தது. ஒரு குறிக்கோளுக்காக அவர்கள் தங்களை அர்ப்பணித்துக் கொண்டது மனித குலத்திற்கே உரிதான பெருந்தன்மையை வெளிப்படுத்தியது. மனித குலத்திற்கே அவர்கள் நம்பிக்கையை கொண்டு வந்தனர்.


லூசியாவின் சகோதரர்களின் தன்னலமற்ற கடின உழைப்பு மனித வாழ்க்கையின் அர்த்தத்தை நமக்கு உணர்த்தியது. இந்தக் கதையானது பிறரின் நல்வாழ்விற்காக தங்களை அர்ப்பணிப்பவர்கள் உள்ள வரையில் மனித குலம் தழைக்கும் என்ற செய்தியை நமக்கு அளிக்கிறது.

Two Gentlemen of Verona Glossary




Two Gentlemen of Verona Synonyms

Question 1.

He disannroved of their shabby appearance.

(a) tidy

(b) clean

(c) crisp

(d) wom-out

Answer:(d) wom-out

Question 2.

He shrugged his shoulders.

(a) lowered

(b) raised lightly

(c) widened

(d) decreased

Answer:(b) raised lightly

Question 3.

I was gazing at the two little figures.

(a) blinking

(b) looking intently

(c) gruelling

(d) glistening

Answer:(b) looking intently

Question 4.

They had tangled hair.

(a) smooth

(b) matted/twisted

(c) straight

(d) Well-groomed

Answer:(b) matted/twisted

Question 5.

The narrator was attracted to their dark earnest eyes.

(a) comic

(b) serious

(c) innocent

(d) yearning

Answer:(b) serious

Question 6.

Jacopo barely came up to the door handle of the car.

(a) fully

(b) hardly

(c) simply

(d) complexly

Answer:(b) hardly

Question 7.

They were doing brisk business in the public square.

(a) indolent

(b) active

(c) lethargic

(d) dull

Answer:(b) active

Question 8.

We went over to the boys as trade slackened.

(a) got brisk

(b) intensified

(c) quickened up

(d) slowed down

Answer:(d) slowed down

Question 9.

My interest was again provoked.

(a) annoyed

(b) irritated

(c) aroused

(d) exasperated

Answer:(c) aroused

Question 10.

They had remarkable demeanour.

(a) meanness

(b) manner

(c) make-up

(d) policy

Answer:(b) manner

Question 11.

In many ways the boys were artless.

(a) artificial

(b) innocent

(c) pretentious

(d) snobbish

Answer:(b) innocent

Question 12.

They hawked newspapers.

(a) sold in public places

(b) displacment

(c) showcased

(d) brougth

Answer:(a) sold in public places

Question 13.

We came upon them in the windy and deserted square,

(a) populated

(b) uninhabited

(c) dense

(d) occupied

Answer:(b) uninhabited

Question 14.

you must be saving to emigrate to America.

(a) visit another country

(b) desert

(c) settle down

(d) become a citizen in another country

Answer:(b) desert

Question 15.

There was a pause.

(a) closed

(b) temporary stop

(c) evicted

(d) seized

Answer:(b) temporary stop

Question 16.

We drove to a tiny village.

(a) stupendous

(b) very small

(c) large

(d) spectacular

Answer:(b) very small

Question 17.

I imagined to see some humble dwellings.

(a) proud

(b) modest

(c) immodest

(d) grand

Answer:(b) modest

Question 18.

They disappeared beyond the comer of a wall.

(a) left

(b) came

(c) emerged

(d) vanished

Answer:(d) vanished

Question 19.

I rang the bell determinedly.

(a) resolutely

(b) gradually

(c) intermitently

(d) cautiously

Answer:(a) resolutely

Question 20.

A pleasant looking woman with a steel rimmed glass opened the door.

(a) irritated

(b) intrepid

(c) morose

(d) happy

Answer:(d) happy

Question 21.

With a smile she bade me look through the partition.

(a) requested

(b) ordered

(c) humbled

(d) humiliated

Answer:(b) ordered

Question 22.

A girl was listening to their chatter.

(a) series of meaningless sounds

(b) chopper

(c) copter

(d) callousness

Answer:(a) series of meaningless sounds

Question 23.

Her eyes were soft and tender.

(a) harsh

(b) gentle

(c) sly

(d) stubborn

Answer:(b) gentle

Question 24.

I could not bear to intrude upon their privacy.

(a) help

(b) protect

(c) predate

(d) encroach

Answer:(d) encroach

Question 25.

They persuaded us to take her in.

(a) dissuaded

(b) convinced

(c) disdained

(d) discouraged

Answer:(b) convinced

Two Gentlemen of Verona Antonyms

Find out the antonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences.

Question 1.

The driver disapproved of their shabby appearance.

(a) untidy

(b) dirty

(c) smart

(d) unkempt

Answer:(c) smart

Question 2.

They had tangled hair.

(a) matted

(b) twisted

(c) organised

(d) mangled

Answer:(c) organised

Question 3.

The children were artless.

(a) innocent

(b) simple

(c) natural

(d) pretentious

Answer:(d) pretentious

Question 4.

They were doing brisk business in the public square

(a) quick

(b) intensified

(c) sluggish

(d) feverish

Answer:(c) sluggish

Question 5.

We waited until trade slackened.

(a) slowed down

(b) intensified

(c) got closed

(d) begen

Answer:(b) intensified

Question 6.

Their earnestness provoked my interest.

(a) aroused

(b) teased

(c) deterred

(d) preempted

Answer:(c) deterred

Question 7.

We came upon a windy deserted square.

(a) uninhabited

(b) depeopled

(c) unoccupied

(d) crowded

Answer:(d) crowded

Question 8.

There was a pause.

(a) period

(b) stop

(c) resumption

(d) end

Answer:(c) resumption

Question 9.

We drove to a tiny village.

(a) very small

(b) huge

(c) minute

(d) dwarfis

Answer:(b) huge

Question 10.

I expected to see some humble dwellings.

(a) modest

(b) small

(c) meek

(d) proud

Answer:(d) proud

Question 11.

They disappeared beyond the comer.

(a) vanished

(b) appeared

(c) ran away

(d) melting

Answer:(b) appeared

Question 12.

I rang the bell determinedly.

(a) firmly

(b) irresolutely

(c) decidedly

(d) unhesitatingly

Answer:(b) irresolutely

Question 13.

He saw a pleasant looking nurse.

(a) gleeful

(b) happy

(c) unpleasant

(d) kind

Answer:(c) unpleasant

Question 14.

Her eyes were soft and tender.

(a) caring

(b) kind

(c) noble

(d) unsympathetic

Answer:(d) unsympathetic

Question 15.

They persuaded us to take her in.

(a) convinced

(b) satisfied

(c) paified

(d) dissuaded

Answer:(d) dissuaded

Leave a Reply