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12th English Guide Lesson 2 Prose A Nice Cup of Tea

12th English Guide Lesson 2 Prose A Nice Cup of Tea

TN 12th English Solutions Prose Chapter 2 A Nice Cup of Tea

12th Standard English Lesson 2 Prose A Nice Cup of Tea Book Back Question and Answers. 12th English Lesson 2 Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf. 12th English All Lesson Book Back Answers.

12th English Guide Lesson 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona

12th English Lesson 2 A Nice Cup Of Tea Questions And Answers

Warm Up

(a) Here are a few varieties of tea. How many of these have you tasted? Tick the boxes.



(b) You would have seen lovely packets of tea on the shelves in supermarkets and shops. Have you ever wondered how tea powder is obtained from the plants? Look at the pictures and describe the process.


  • The selected young Leaves are Plucked manually. Nowadays machines are avalible
  • It is then left for drying.
  • The dried leaves are then powdered and packed.

12th English A Nice Cup of Tea Textual Questions

1.Based on your understanding of the text, answer each of the following questions in one or two sentences.

(a) What seems ‘curious’ to the author?


  • The absence of “Tea” in the recipes of cookery book is curious to the author.

(b) Why does the author say that it is important to include a tea recipe in cookery books?


  • It is important to include tea in the cookery book because tea is one of the mainstays of civilisation in England, Eire, Australia and New Zealand. Besides, the nicest manner of making tea is a subject of violent disputes among tea-loving nations.

(c) Mention the countries in which tea is a part of civilization.


  • It is one of the mainstays of civilization in UK, Australia, Eire and New Zealand.

(d) Which tea does the author prefer-China tea or Indian tea?


  • The author prefers Indian tea to Chinese tea.

(e) According to the author, what does the phrase ‘a nice cup of tea’ refer to?


  • Nice cup of tea means Indian tea which makes one feel wiser, optimistic and wiser.

(f) What is the second golden rule in the preparation of tea?


  • Second golden rule is that tea should be made in small quantities (i.e.) in a teapot.

(g) How does army tea taste?


  • Army tea tastes of grease and whitewash.

(h) Do tea lqvers generally like strong tea or weak tea?


  • Tea lovers generally love strong tea.

(i) Why should tea be directly added to the pot?


  • Tea should be added directly to the pot because imprisoning tea leaves in strainers, muslin bags or other devices can be really harmful.

(j) Why does the author prefer the cylindrical cup to a flat cup?


  • Cylindrical cups (i.e.) breakfast cup holds more tea. But in the shallow and flat cup, tea turns half cold before one starts drinking it.

(k) What should be poured into the cup first-tea or milk?


  • One should pour tea first into the cup and then add milk to the desired level. Thus one can regulate the amount of milk added to tea.

(l) Why does the author advise removing cream from the milk?


  • Cream should be removed before adding the milk to tea because creamy milk gives a sickly taste to tea.

(m) Does the author like drinking tea with sugar? Give reasons.


  • Adding sugar to tea will deprive tea of its real taste. Misguided people who take tea do it because of the sweetness and not because of the taste of tea.

(n) Why does the author refer to himself as being in ‘a minority’?


  • The author takes tea without sugar to relish the real taste of tea. But majority of people take it with sugar. So, the author refers to himself as a minority.

(o) Whom does the author call ‘misguided people’? What is his advice to them?


  • Some misguided people admit that they drink tea for stimulation and warmth. They are not interested in tea. So, they add sugar to take the taste away. He advises them to drink tea without adding sugar for a fortnight. They would never again ruin the real taste of tea by adding sugar.

Additional Questions

(a) What does the author find in his own recipe for the perfect cup of tea?


  • The author finds eleven outstanding points in his own recipe for the perfect cup of tea.

(b) How does the author value tea out of an urn?


  • According to the author, Tea out of an urn is always tasteless.

(c) What is the ‘third golden rule’?


  • The pot should be warmed beforehand.

(d) What is the author’s opinion about strainers or filters in the preparation of tea?


  • Tea should be put straight into the pot. No strainer muslin bags or other devices must be used to imprison the tea.

(e) What is seventh golden rule?


  • After making tea, one should stir it or better give the pot a good shake. Afterwards, the tea leaves may be allowed to settle down.

(f) What is cited as a mysterious social etiquette surrounding the tea pot?


  • It is considered vulgar to drink tea out of your saucer.

(g) What are the subsidiary uses of tea leaves?


  • Telling fortunes, predicting the arrival of visitors, feeding rabbits, healing bums and sweeping the carpet are some of the subsidiary uses of tea leaves.

2. Based on your understanding of the text, answer each of the following questions in four or five sentences.

(a) What are the author’s views on China tea?


  • China tea has virtues which are not to be despised, it is economic. One can drink it without milk, but there is not much stimulation in it. One does not feel wiser, braver or more optimistic after drinking it.

(b) How does adding sugar affect the taste of tea?


  • The author raises a pertinent question, “How can you call yourself a true tea lover if you destroy the flavour of your tea by putting sugar in it?” He mocks such people that they could add even salt and pepper in tea. Adding sugar to hot water would give them an eqaul drink. So, the author disapproves of adding sugar to tea to retain its flavour and taste.

(c) Elucidate the author’s ideas about teapots.


  • The teapot should be made of China or earthen ware. Silver or Britannia ware teapot produce inferior quality tea. Enamel pots are worse. Though curiously enough a pewter teapot, a rarity nowadays, is not so bad.

 Additional Questions

(а) How does A.G. Gardiner explode the myth about the harmfulness of tea leaves?


  • In some countries, tea pots are fitted with little dangling baskets under the spout to catch the stray leaves which are supposed to be harmful. The author asserts that one can swallow tea- leaves in considerable quantities without ill-effect. He claims that if the tea is not loose in the pot it never infuses properly with the hot beverage (i.e.) tea.

(b) what are the two schools of thought in tea making which fight against one another in England? Why?


  • In every family in England, two schools of thoughts persist on tea making. One group insists that milk should be poured first and tea should be added to it. But the author seconds the second school which claims tea must be powered first and milk must be added later because one could easily regulate the amount of milk to taste.

3. Answer each of the following questions in a paragraph of 100-150 words.

(а) Summarise George Orwell’s distinctive ideas in “A Nice Cup of Tea”.


  • Tea is one of the mainstays of civilizations of UK, New Zealand, Australia and Eire. But, it is not found in the recipes of cookery books. The nicest manner in which tea must be prepared has become a subject matter of violent disputes among tea loving persons even within a family. Indian tea fits in with the author’s description of “nicest cup of tea” as it rejuvenates the drinker with wisdom, stimulation, bravery and optimism. One cup of strong tea is equal to twenty weak ones. Best tea is prepared by boiling tea leaves first and then adding milk to taste.
  • Milk first schools and tea first schools still fight. Tea prepared in earthen pot or china ware is good. The real flavour of tea should never be imprisoned by strainers. Consuming tea leaves will not harm one’s health. Adding sugar to tea will naturally ruin its real flavour and taste. The author advises misguided people who drink sweet tea to desist from the practice for a fortnight. He guarantees them that they would like the natural taste of tea and would never again add sugar to tea. Tea should be taken in a cylindrical or breakfast cup to enjoy it. Shallow and flat cups don’t retain warmth and taste for a long time.

(b) Discuss how the essay reveals the factual points and the author’s personal opinions on the preparation of tea.


  • Facts found in the essay: There is no mention of tea in the recipes cookery books except some sketchy ideas on the process of preparation. Tea is one of the mainstays of civilization of UK, Australia, New Zealand and Eire. The process of tea making is a subject matter of violent disputes. The author has come up with eleven golden rules for preparation of a nice tea. Tea pot should be made of china or earthen ware. In some countries, teapots are fitted with little dangling baskets under the spout to catch stray tea leaves, which are supposed to be harmful. One should use water that has been freshly boiled. After making tea, one should stir it or better give the pot a good shake, afterwards allowing the leaves to settle down. Some people don’t like tea in itself. They only drink it in order to be warmed and stimulated and they need sugar to take away the taste of tea.
  • The author’s opinion: The maimer of making the nicest cup of tea is the subject matter of violent disputes. China tea doesn’t give stimulation, wisdom, bravery or optimism. Indian tea means ‘a nice cup of tea’. The army tea tastes of grease and white wash. The method of swilling tea out with hot water is not a good practice. One strong cup of tea is better than twenty weak ones. One can swallow considerable quantities of tea. One should take the teapot to the kettle and not the otherway about. If you use already boiled water or freshly brought to boil does not make any difference in the taste of tea. One should remove cream off before adding the milk to tea. By putting tea leaves in first and stirring it as one pours milk one can regulate the amount of milk. Tea must be drunk without sugar for enjoying the real flavour and taste.

(c) What are the aspects that contribute to humour in the essay?


  • The author claims the best manner of making tea is the subject matter of violent disputes. He compliments china tea for being economical but also says one does not feel rejuvenated after drinking it. One doesn’t feel braver, wiser, more optimistic or stimulated after drinking the Chinese tea. He says army tea tastes of grease and white wash. In Britain there are two schools of thought (i.e.) milk first school and tea first school (i.e.) one school claiming that milk must be poured first and tea added later and another school claiming that tea must be poured first and milk to be added next.
  • He says those who take tea with sugar for its sweetness alone as misguided people. He says that they could veiy well add salt and pepper to tea and drink it. He claims that there are some mysterious social etiquette surrounding teapot. It is vulgar to drink tea out of one’s saucer. There are some subsidiary uses of tea leaves such as telling fortunes, predicting the arrival of visitors, feeding rabbits, healing bums and sweeping the carpet.

4. Based on your understanding of the text, complete the chart given below by choosing the appropriate words or phrases given in brackets.

(add sugar, shaken, milk, infused properly, strainers, without cream, taken to the kettle, small quantities, China or earthenware, stirred, warmed)


  1. small quantities
  2. China or earthenware,
  3. warmed
  4. strainers
  5. taken to the kettle
  6. infused properly
  7. stirred
  8. shaken
  9. without cream
  10. add sugar


(a) Find out the synonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences.

Question 1.

But because the best manner of making it is the subject of violent disputes.

(a) agreements

(b) applauses

(c) conflicts

(d) discussions

Answer:(c) conflicts

Question 2.

________ tea is one of the mainstays of civilization in the country.

(a) a society in an advanced state of social development

(b) a society that has slow progress

(c) a society that has no progress

(d) a society in an average state of social development

Answer:(a) a society in an advanced state of social development

Question 3

________ that they only drink it in order to be warmed and stimulated.

(a) motivated

(b) discouraged

(c) passive

(d) admired

Answer:(a) motivated

Question 4

________ under the spout to catch the stray leaves.

(a) fresh

(b) loose

(c) gathered

(d) harmful

Answer:(b) loose

Question 5.

One is liable to put in too much milk.

(a) likely

(b) certain

(c) eager

(d) responsible

Answer:(d) responsible


Question 1.

At least four others are controversial.

(a) harmonious

(b) disputable

(c) agreeable

(d) comprehensive

Answer:(b) disputable

Question 2.

One does not feel more optimistic after drinking it.

(a) dejected

(b) despaired

(c) positive

(d) disdainful

Answer:(c) positive

Question 3.

China tea has virtues.

(a) vices

(b) admirable qualities

(c) despicable traits

(d) alarming wickedness

Answer:(b) admirable qualities

Question 4.

They are not to be despised.

(a) loved

(b) yearned

(c) hated

(d) doted

Answer:(c) hated

Question 5.

Army tea is made in cauldron.

(a) stove

(b) mini cooker

(c) boiler

(d) cup

Answer:(c) boiler

Question 6.

It is not to be done with the usual method of swilling it with hot water.

(a) rinsing

(b) drenching

(c) chirping

(d) cutting

Answer:(a) rinsing

Question 7.

In a time of rationing, this is not an idea.

(a) liberal supply

(b) confiscating

(c) blocking

(d) restricting supply

Answer:(d) restricting supply

Question 8.

In some countries teapots are fitted with little dangling baskets.

(a) dancing freely

(b) hanging freely

(c) severed

(d) tied tightly

Answer:(b) hanging freely

Question 9.

No, strainers, muslin bags or other devices to imprison the tea.

(a) discharge

(b) release

(c) acquit

(d) detain

Answer:(d) detain

Question 10.

One should stir it well.

(a) mix thoroughly

(b) drain fully

(c) soak completely

(d) dried fully

Answer:(a) mix thoroughly

Question 11.

You can prepare a very similar drink.

(a) unidentical

(b) almost the same

(c) unique

(d) distinct

Answer:(b) almost the same

Question 12.

You could make a drink by dissolving sugar in hot water.

(a) segregating

(b) filter

(c) strain

(d) making a solution

Answer:(d) making a solution

Question 13.

Shallow type cup doesn’t hold much.

(a) deep

(b) profound

(c) cylindrical

(d) of little depth

Answer:(d) of little depth

Question 14.

Milk that is too creamy always gives tea a sickly taste.

(a) rich

(b) flavoured

(c) unpleasant

(d) un healthy

Answer:(c) unpleasant

Question 15.

There is also a mysterious social etiquette.

(a) clear

(b) comprehensible

(c) lucid

(d) incompressible

Answer:(d) incompressible

Question 16.

A social etiquette surrounds teapot.

(a) evils

(b) goods and services

(c) vices

(d) socially accepted behaviour

Answer:(d) socially accepted behaviour

Question 17.

There are some subidiarv.

(a) major

(b) crucial

(c) vital

(d) supplementary

Answer:(d) supplementary

Question 18.

Such as telling fortune…

(a) evil

(b) wisdom

(c) luck

(d) omen

Answer:(c) luck

Question 19.

predicting the arrival of visitors.

(a) cautioning

(b) addressing

(c) foretelling

(d) doubting

Answer:(c) foretelling

Question 20.

Be quite sure of wringing out of one’s ration the twenty good, strong cups of tea.

(a) smothering

(b) squeezing out

(c) making out

(d) breathing out

Answer:(b) squeezing out

(b) Find out the antonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences.

Question 1.

which are not to be despised.

(a) hated

(b) liked

(c) respected

(d) defeated

Answer:(b) liked

Question 2.

One does not feel wise, braver or more optimistic.

(a) opportunistic

(b) cheerful

(c) realistic

(d) pessimistic

Answer:(d) pessimistic

Question 3.

Not the flat, shallow type…

(a) narrow

(b) wide

(c) deep

(d) direct

Answer:(c) deep

Question 4.

Predicting the arrival of visitors…

(a) journey

(b) departure

(c) migration

(d) perusal

Answer:(b) departure

Question 5.

but they are sufficient to show how subtilized the whole business has become,

(a) enough

(b) suffocative

(c) inadequate

(d) submissive

Answer:(c) inadequate


Question 1.

They give no ruling on several of the most important points.

(a) many

(b) plentiful

(c) a few

(d) a large number of

Answer:(c) a few

Question 2.

It is a subject of violent disputes.

(a) brutal

(b) reckless

(c) vicious

(d) gentle

Answer:(d) gentle

Question 3.

China tea has virtues.

(a) attributes

(b) vices

(c) injuries

(d) problems

Answer:(b) vices

Question 4.

It is economical.

(a) frugal

(b) expensive

(c) mean

(d) niggardly

Answer:(b) expensive

Question 5.

One can swallow considerable quanities without ill-effects.

(a) large

(b) significant

(c) sizeable

(d) paltry

Answer:(d) paltry

Question 6.

I find no fewer than eleven outstanding points.

(a) exceptional

(b) excellent

(c) exclusive

(d) mediocre

Answer:(d) mediocre

Question 7.

At least four others are acutely controversial.

(a) disagreeable

(b) contentious

(c) agreeable

(d) disputable

Answer:(c) agreeable

Question 8.

You will probably find that it is unmentioned.

(a) improbably

(b) apparently

(c) plausibly

(d) tied perhaps

Answer:(a) improbably

Question 9.

Britannia teapots produce inferior tea.

(a) junior

(b) superior

(c) senior

(d) circular

Answer:(b) superior

Question 10.

If the tea is not loose in the pot, it never infuses properly.

(a) pervades

(b) permeates

(c) imbues

(d) drains

Answer:(d) drains

Question 11.

Stray leaves are supposed to be harmful.

(a) hurtful

(b) damaging

(c) evil

(d) harless/safe

Answer:(d) harless/safe

Question 12.

I am in a minority.

(a) popularity

(b) scarcity

(c) paucity

(d) majority

Answer:(d) majority

Question 13.

One can exactly regulate the amount of milk.

(a) correctly

(b) inaccurately

(c) precisely

(d) fully

Answer:(b) inaccurately

Question 14.

Some drink it only to be stimulated.

(a) motivated

(b) encouraged

(c) discouraged

(d) rejuvenated

Answer:(c) discouraged

Question 15.

The milk-first school can bring forward some fairly strong arguments.

(a) progressive

(b) leeward

(c) backward

(d) onward

Answer:(c) backward

(c) Fill in the boxes with the correct answers. The first one has been done for you.



Word with meaning and part of speech


Noun/Verb/ Adj. form



Word : wise meaning : clever part of speech : adjective

My brother is wise.


My brother showed great wisdom in business.




















Word with meaning and part of speech


Noun/Verb/ Adj. form



Word : wise meaning : clever part of speech : adjective

My brother is wise.


My brother showed great wisdom in business.



Too much sugar can harm one’s health in the longer run.


Hon’ble primie minister vowed that the harm (n) done to the fibre of democracy through Pulwama attack will not go unpunished.



Tea stimulates (v) one’s brain.


Population explosion is a major stimulant (n) to the industrial development in China.



My brother is an argumentative (adj) scholar.


You may win an argument (n) but lose a friend



Loyal and patriotic citizens alone make a country strong (adj)


The strength (n) of Mary Kom amazed fellow boxers.



Prolonged conflict at the border could be destructive (adj) for both the sides.


Pakistan continues to down play the destruction (n)caused by India’s preemptive attack on Balakot camp.


Listening Activity

Listen to the passage about the ‘Significance of Tea’ and answer the questions

The Significance of Tea

Tea has been an important beverage for thousands of years. It is consumed by two-thirds of the world’s population. India is the second largest tea producer in the world after China, although over 70 per cent of its tea is consumed within India. Tea has been proved to offer numerous health benefits. Scientists and researchers have found that drinking tea could reduce the risk of heart diseases. The antioxidants in tea might prevent cancer. Regular tea drinking might help one in lowering blood sugar and blood pressure. Tea might be an effective agent in the prevention and treatment of neurological disorders. The consumption of tea results in the strengthening of one’s teeth, bones and immune system. However, drinking too much tea may prove to be harmful to one’s health. So, drinking tea moderately could make one healthier. Researchers have confirmed the significant overall health benefits of drinking tea.


1. Which country is the largest tea producer in the world?


  • China is the largest producer of tea in the world.

2. ________ percent of the tea produced in India is exported.


  • 30

3. What is the role of antioxidants in tea?


  • The antioxidants in tea might prevent cancer.

4. Drinking tea strengthens one’s ______ , and _____


  • teeth, bones, immune system

5. How does drinking tea help a diabetic?


  • Regular tea drinking lowers blood sugar and thus helps a diabetic.


Speaking Activity

Read the story silently.

Once upon a time a daughter complained to her father that her life was miserable and that she didn’t know how she was going to make it. She was tired of fighting and struggling all the ( time. It seemed that just as one problem was solved, another one soon followed. Her father,a chef, took her to the kitchen. He filled three pots with water and placed each on high flame. Once the three pots began to boil, he placed potatoes in one pot, eggs in the second pot, and .ground coffee beans in the third pot. He then let them boil, without saying a word to his daughter. The daughter moaned and impatiently waited, wondering what he was doing.‘

After twenty minutes he turned off the burners. He took the potatoes out of the pot and placed them in a bowl. He pulled the boiled eggs out and placed them in a bowl. He then ladled the coffee out and poured it in a cup. Turning to her he asked. “Daughter, what do you see?”

“Potatoes, eggs, and coffee,” she hastily replied, “Look closer,” he said, “and touch the potatoes.” She did and noted that they were soft. He then asked her to take an egg and break it. After peeling off the shell, she observed the hard-boiled egg.

Finally, he asked her to sip the coffee. Its rich aroma brought a smile to her face. “Father, what does this mean?” she asked. He then explained that the potatoes, the eggs and coffee beans had each faced the same adversity – the boiling water. However, each one reacted differently. The potato was strong, hard, and unrelenting, but in boiling water, it became soft and weak. The egg was fragile, with the thin outer shell protecting its liquid interior until it was put in the boiling water. Then the inside of the eggs became hard. However, the ground coffee beans were unique.

After they were exposed to the boiling water, they changed the water and created something new. “Which are you?” he asked his daughter. “When adversity knocks on your door, how do you respond? Are you a potato, an egg, or a coffee bean? Things happen around us, things happen to us, but the only thing that truly matters is what happens within us. Which one are you?

This story shows how people react to different situations in life. Some become weak and soft like the potatoes and some others harden like the egg. The best way to face difficulties is illustrated by the coffee beans which change their colour and add flavour.

Now use these ideas and prepare a speech on the topic ‘The importance of developing a positive attitude’ and deliver the speech in the school assembly.

The importance of developing a positive attitude:

Respected Chief Guest, dignitaries on the dias, teachers and my dear friends. I would like to say a few words on the importance of developing a positive attitude.

Positive attitude is necessary to succeed in life. A person with positive attitude has self confidence and empathy. To highlight this I would like to quote some incidents in the life of Amelia Earhart, the first woman pilot. She watched a pilot taking off in his small plane. On the runway, he wanted to scare her, he drove the small plane very close to her, she didn’t panic or run away. The plane which whizzed past her seemed to invite her. She worked at various jobs such as photographer, truck driver and stenographer. She managed to save 1000 dollars for her flying lessons. In order to reach the air-field Amelia had to take a bus to the end of line and walk 6 km. Earhart’s commitment to flying required her to accept frequent hardwork. After proving her professional skills as a lady pilot, she popularized flying and encouraged many girls to take pilot training. She proved that women can also shine in the field which was till then dominated by men.

The next best example is the positive attitude of Abinandan, the pilot whose parachute drifted into Pakistan and was taken a prisoner. Even while in the custody of Pak military, he did not lose his confidence. He conducted himself bravely. He did not fear, he believed in himself and in his country. He is back home as a living legend spreading the message that positive attitude can help one overcome any obstacle in life.



Non-verbal Representations.

Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next decade.

Non-verbal Representations.
Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next decade.

Fastest growing occupations:

It is true that most of us were not aware of the current demands in the job market 10 years ago. As the emerging jobs and the required skill sets change all the professional qualifications become irrelevant. In addition to the basic degree, it is necessary to foresee the emerging trends in the job market. This paragraph shows that the topmost opportunity to grow is in the field of wind and solar energy. Technicians are needed in this sector. There is 100% chances of placement for those who qualify themselves in operating wind mills, designing, installing and maintenance of solar panels. Paramedical profession is likely to grow exponentially.


It means that those who pursue nursing, lab technician courses would get placed soon. Strikingly, Mathematicians and Statisticians wall be next in huge demand as 70% growth is for them only. As there is a boom in media services, T.V., radio, newspapers and periodicals, there is a rising demand for media persons and journalists. Against the common beleif, only 50% growth opportunity is there for professionals qualified in software development. It is heartening to note that cycle repairers and two wheeler mechanics will get opportunities next to software engineers. Though lakhs of graduates do B.Ed. course the growth opportunity in teaching jobs in colleges and schools is only 30%. The dismal picture for sportsmen and coaches is discouraging. Only 20% growth is predicted in placements for coaches and sportsmen. Finally only 10% growth is possible for those who specialise in food analysis and working in hotels.



Now read the following article on the emerging career options in the modern era and answer the questions that follow.


The students at the higher secondary level in schools start thinking of suitable courses to take up at the university level based on their aptitude, ability and interests. While considering the higher education options, they should also plan the career path they wish to take. In today’s complex job scenario, there is a mismatch between demand and supply on one hand we have qualified professionals desperately trying to find a job, while on the other hand, there are many professions that need suitable talented employees. But such skilled employees are unavailable. Therefore, the need of the hour is that students have an understanding of the emerging career options.

Schools should take the initiative to organise career guidance and counselling sessions for students. However, students need to remember that to build a strong career, they must understand the prospective field and their primary interest. It is also important for students to focus on overall personality development and hone their communication skills as these are important for the success of their career. Students are also advised that in order to build a solid career foundation, they need to qualify suitably by pursuing a degree course in the chosen area of interest and also consider post graduate education. Diploma/Short-term courses may help one find a job in the short run but may not promise career progression. Rapid advancement in science and technology and globalisation has widened the scope of career options in the twenty-first century. Let us consider some popular careers.

Fashion Designing:

The current cosmopolitan and fashion-conscious wave that has taken over our country has .opened up a huge arena for careers in fashion. These careers encompass designing clothes, costumes, jewellery, footwear, wardrobe, costumes, accessories and the like.


Culinary Arts:

With food and cookery shows being a major trend across the world, culinary arts, a sub-domain of the hospitality sector, has now become the most sought after career.


Paramedical sciences:

In recent times, there has been a great demand in the health care industry. Paramedical professionals who support medical practitioners in areas such as optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy, and dentistry are much sought after.


Media, Journalism and Advertising:

In this information era, print and entertainment media have become a force to reckon with. This arena has become a huge career playground because youngsters are attracted to it as the exposure and reach is greater through such mass media. We notice that radio and TV channels, internet companies and advertising agencies are increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.


Hotel Management:

The hotel industry is the fastest growing industry in India. The number of international travellers (both for business and leisure) is increasing. The hospitality and service industry offers career options such as house keeping, front-desk executives, tourism management, etc.

76 English-12

Sports Management:

With multinational companies supporting sports, careers in sports offer enormous scope. One need not be a player or an athlete to shine in a sports career because the field of sports offers various career options such as technical trainers, commentators, sports journalists, dieticians, referees, etc. Conducting sports events successfully, organizing the event laudably, preparing the ground for the event are all part of sports management.


(a) When do students start thinking about their career path?


  • At the end of plus two exams students start thinking about their career path.

(b) How can students build a strong career?


  • To build a strong career, students must understand the prospective field and their primary interest. They need to qualify suitably by pursuing a degree course in their chosen area of interest.

(c) What are the integral aspects of a successful career?


  • Personality development, communicative competence, required skill sets, keeping abreast of technological advancements in addition to qualification in the respective field are the integral aspects of a successful career.

(d) What is meant by ‘culinary art’?


  • Cooking is called culinary art.

(e) Why is media a popular career option?


  • Media is a popular carrer option because print and entertainment media have become a force to reckon with. Radio, TV channels, internet companies and advertisement companies are increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.

(f) Name some paramedical courses mentioned in the passage.


  • Optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy and dentistry are some popular paramedical courses.

(g) Why is the hotel industry seen as the fastest growing in India?


The number of international travellers visiting India is rapidly growing. This has resulted in the exponential growth of hospitality and service industry. A lot of career options such as house keeping, front-desk executives, tourism management etc. are now open.

(h) Does one have to be a player to opt for a career in the field of sports? Answer giving reasons.


  • No. Sports journalists, dieticians, technical trainers and commentators need not be sports persons.

(i) Pick one word from the passage which is the opposite of ‘modern’.


  • Traditional

(j) Which word in the passage means ‘composed of people from many parts of the country’?


  • International travellers



Task 1

Recall your learning of basic prepositions and complete the sentences using the prepositions given in brackets.










in front of



  •  (a) The boy jumped ______ a narrow stream.
  • (b) Afsar will meet me ______ Friday morning.
  • (c) The temple is ______ the bank.
  • (d) My friend will meet me ______ his brother tomorrow.
  • (e) There is usually a garden ______ a bungalow.
  • (f) Yuvan has been studying well ______ childhood.
  • (g) A trekker climbed ______ a mountain meticulously.
  • (h) There was a skirmish ______ my brother and sister.
  • (i) The laudable thoughts were apparent ______ many scholars in a conference.
  • (j) It is easy to work ______ vthe aegis of visionary leader.


  • (a) into
  • (b) on
  • (c) near/beside
  • (d) with
  • (e) in front of
  • (f) since
  • (g) over
  • (h) between
  • (i) among
  • (j) under

Task 2

Complete the following passages using the prepositions given in brackets.

(among, for, at, to, in,)

Question (i)

______ When Lakshmi was (1) ______ school, she practised music from Monday (2) ______ Friday. She involved herself (3) ______ the school orchestra. She was responsible (4) ______ conducting many programmes. She was very popular (5) ______ her schoolmates, as she was kind, friendly and helpful.


  1. at
  2. to
  3. in
  4. for
  5. among

Question (ii)

(after, with, on, before, of, in, for)

(1) _____ the interview, Solomon was confident (2) _____ getting the job. He knew that he was qualified (3) _____ the job. He was interested (4) _____ discharging his duty perfectly. The interview panel was impressed (5) _____ his attitude and skills. So (6) _____ the interview, he was (7) _____ cloud nine.


  1. Before
  2. of
  3. for
  4. in
  5. with
  6. after
  7. on

Prepositional Phrases

Task 1

Underline the prepositional phrases. The first two examples have been done for you.

(a) With reference to your advertisement in a local newspaper, I am applying for the post of a salesman.

(b) The assignment will be completed in a few weeks.

Question (c)

Ravi was appreciated by his teachers.


Ravi was appreciated by his teachers.

Question (d)

We feel sorry for our mistakes.


We feel sorry for our mistakes.

Question (e)

The boy studied well in spite of many obstacles.


The boy studied well in spite of many obstacles.

Question (f)

Our nation is famous for its glorious culture.


Our nation is famous for its glorious culture.

Question (g)

We are proud of our children.


We are proud of our children.

Question (h)

My brother will return home in the evening.


My brother will return home in the evening.

Task 2

Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositional phrase given in brackets.

(in favour of, in case of, according to, on the whole, on account of, on behalf of, in spite of, instead of)

  • (a) ______ Kiran, Rajesh may attend a programme.
  • (b) Many tourists visited Ooty ______ heavy rains.
  • (c) Expressing gratitude ______ others is common in a vote of thanks.
  • (d) ______ I had a happy childhood.
  • (e) Our teacher always acts ______ her students.
  • (f) ______ his laziness, the boy remained passive for a long time.
  • (g) ______ Gandhiji, ahimsa means infinite love.
  • (h) ______ rain, take an umbrella.


  • (a) instead of
  • (b) in spite of
  • (c) on behalf of
  • (d) on the whole
  • (e) in favour of
  • (J) On account of
  • (g) According to
  • (h) In case of

Connectives or Linkers


Task 1

Choose the appropriate linker from within the brackets and complete the sentences.

  • (a) I could not complete my paper in the examination ______ (because, but) I was slow in answering the questions.
  • (b) It started raining, ______ (yet, so) we could not play.
  • (c) ______ (As, If) I got up early, I managed to reach school on time.
  • (d) ______ (Though/Whereas) he committed a mistake, he apologised (and/since) promised that he would not repeat it.
  • (e) This is ______ (how/what) it must be done.
  • (f) The vendor saw the train moving slowly from the platform, ______ (therefore/until) he got
  • (g) I was not well, ______ (but/so) I did not attend the class.
  • (h) (If, Although) ______ she can drive , she travels by bus.
  • (i) (If/Unless) ______ you register your name, you cannot participate in the competitions.
  • (j) (As soon as/Besides) ______ my father arrived home, I narrated the incident.
  • (k) Be quick to hear ______ (then/ and) slow to speak.
  • (l) lam ______ (neither/either) an ascetic in theory (nor/or) in practice.
  • (m) We fail to harness the rain water, ______ (consequently, nevertheless) we suffer.
  • (n) My brother will certainly clear GRE; ______ (yet/for) he works very hard.


  • (a) because
  • (b) so
  • (c) As
  • (d) Though, and
  • (e) how
  • (f) therefore
  • (g) so
  • (h) Although
  • (i) Unless
  • (j) As soon as
  • (k) and
  • (l) neither, nor
  • (m) consequently
  • (n) for

Task 2

Combine the sentences and rewrite them using the words given in the brackets.

(a) The well was deep. Therefore, the fox could not get out of the well, (because)


  • The fox could not get out of the well because the well was deep.

(b) The work was over. We went home, (when)


  • When the work was over, we went home.

(c) A library is a public place. We see a number of books kept there for reading, (where)


  • A library is a public place where we see a number of books kept for reading.

(d) The culprit was caught. Immediately, he was taken to the police station, (as soon as)


  • As soon as the culprit was caught, he was taken to the police station.

(e) The boys were stealing mangoes from a grove. At that time, the owner of the grove came in.(while)


  • While the boys were stealing mangoes, the owner of the grove came in.

(J) Artificially flavoured juices are hazardous to health. Moreover, they lead to kidney problems, (and)


  • Artificially flavoured juices are hazardous to health and they lead to kidney problems.

(g) Adit has been promoted. Ranjan has been promoted, (as well as)


  • Adit as well as Ranjan have been promoted.

(h) Caesar was declared emperor. The conspirators killed him. (After)


  • After Caesar was declared the emperor, the conspirators killed him.

Task 3

Fill in the blanks with appropriate correlative conjunctions.

  • (a) She is _____ an understanding person _____ everybody likes to be with her.
  • (b) Suraj owns _____ a typewriter _____ a computer.
  • (c) Vani is _____ a good singer _____ a good dancer.
  • (d) Amit did not know _____ his father met his class teacher _____ not.
  • (e) I would _____ starve _____ beg.


  • (a) such, that
  • (b) not only, but also
  • (c) not only, but also
  • (d) whether, or
  • (e) neither, nor


Article Writing

Task 1

The Government of Tamil nadu has imposed a ban on the use of plastic. Effective implementation of this ban depends on public awareness and individual responsibility.

Write an article of 150 words for your school magazine to create an awareness of the dangers posed by indiscriminate use of plastic. Expand the ideas given below as notes.


a. Introduction:

  1. Plastic – synthetic material – doesn’t decompose in soil
  2. Inevitable role of plastic – man’s day-to-day life

b. Human Health Hazard:

  1. Leeching of plastic into food – micro plastic entering food chain
  2. Human body’s inability to deal with this unnatural substance
  3. Reaction of micro plastic in human body and ill effects

c. Adverse effects on plants and animals:

  1. Plastic particles choking waterways – affect aquatic animals
  2. Ingestion by aquatic and terrestrial animals -blocking of intestines and respiratory passages

d. Environmental Degradation:

  1. Manufacturing process and burning of plastics – pollute atmosphere
  2. Plastic-non-biodegradable – interferes with soil microorganisms – affects soil fertility

e. Conclusion:

  1. Suggestions for restricted use – alternatives for one-time use of plastics
  2. Segregation of plastic waste – for recycling

Use of Plastic in Daily Life


One of the greatest threats to the sustainability of living environment is plastics. It is a synthetic material. It is not biodegradable, it takes hundreds of years to break down into small particles. Without knowing the long term harm plastic can cause to the environment, plastic has entered all walks of life.

Human health Hazard:

AS hot food items are packed in polythene bags, microplastic enters food chain. Besides, the plastic waste that is scattered is eaten by stray animals and even huge whales and they die eventually unable to digest them. The microplastic that goes into the human body blocks intestine and also causes respiratory disorders. Reaction to microplastic in human body leads to a lot of disorders and diseases.

Adverse Effects:

Plastic particles choke the arteries of water ways and affect the lives of marine organisms as well. Ingestion caused by plastic congestion leads to blocks in the intestine, lungs and eventually death in animals.

Environmental Degradation:

Both the processing involved in production of plastics and burning of broken plastic items result in air pollution. The plastic fragments interfere with soil microorganisms and accelerate infertility of the soil.


People need to be sensitized on the uses of safe disposal of plastic waste and not mix it with organic waste. Besides, people must be encouraged to reduce, recycle and reuse plastic instead of throwing them away.

Task 2

Urban living brings with it a possibility of various communicable diseases.

Now write an article of about 150 words for a leading newspaper on the various ways of maintaining personal hygiene and sanitation in order to ensure a healthy living. Make use of the hints given below.


a.Introduction – ‘

Cleanliness is next to Godliness’ – brief explanation

(b) Personal hygiene:

  1. Frequent washing of hands and regular bathing
  2. Brushing of teeth, trimming of nails and hair
  3. Wearing clean clothes

(c) Keeping diseases at bay:

  1. Avoid street food
  2. Keep food containers covered
  3. Drink boiled water
  4. Wash fruits and vegetables in flowing water

(d) Keeping living areas, surroundings and the environment clean:

  1. Disposal of domestic organic waste on a daily basis and hazardous waste in designated places
  2. Regular sweeping, mopping and dusting
  3. Disinfection of toilets and bathing areas
  4. Avoid littering of public places
  5. Avoid spitting, urinating and defecating in public places

(e) Conclusion – hygiene – a collective exercise – everyone’s involvement and practice, a must – ensure community health and happiness – celebrate life

Cleanliness is next to Godliness


“Cleanliness is next to Godliness”. Those who keep themselves and their surroundings clean and green live safely without the threat of infectious or contagious diseases.

Personal hygiene:

Regular bathing and hand washing, brushing of teeth, combing the hair, paring the nails and wearing neat dresses are indispensable for ensuring personal hygiene.

Keeping diseases at bay:

People who take street food must avoid them because, the food items are exposed to dust and disease spreading germs. Even at home we must ensure that the vessels containing food items are well-covered with plates or lids. As water-borne diseases are prevalent in cities and villages, one must drink only boiled water. Farmers use pesticides and hence we should always wash the vegetables and fruits in flowing water before using them for cooking or eating.

Keeping living areas, surroundings and the environment clean:

We must dispose organic waste on a daily basis. Hazardous waste must be disposed in the designated places only. Littering in public places must be avoided. One must have the civic sense and refrain from spitting, urinating and defecating in public places.


Hygeine is a collective responsibilty of all people. For ensuring the health and happiness of the community, everyone must get involved in maintaining cleanliness in their surroundings.

Suggested Topics:

Importance of Physical Exercises / Sports and Games


A sound mind in a sound body goes the old saying. It holds good in modem times. Physical exercises play a vital role in keeping the body strong.

Kinds of exercises:

The simplest form of exercise is walking. Today people use two wheelers powered by petrol and biologists fear that after a hundred years babies maybe bom without legs using the theory of selection. As free bus pass is given, students have stopped cycling or walking even a kilometer a day.

Some do cycling on a regular basis and keep fit. Some go to the gym and do body building exercises. But everyone’s body’ constitution may not permit long hours of work out in a gym.

By playing traditional games like kho-kho, kabbadi, etc. also can maintain good health. In villages, climbing a huge tall oiled smooth pole is a contest during festivals. People stand in circles on whose shoulders young ones climb up to take the prize money kept on the top of the pole. Playing various games such as Tennis, cricket, basket ball, volleyball, foot ball can also give sufficient physical exercises. Students can partake in athletic events and sports to get enough exercise.


Students should avoid playing games in the phone and watching domestic poison (i.e.) TV serials. Playing and doing physical exercises in the open air will tone up their muscles and build their immune system against diseases.

Travel and its Benefits


Travelling is a great teacher. Augustine says, “the world is a great book of which those who don’t travel read only a page.” Reading about Kashmir or Kodaikanal may not be as fascinating as travelling by car or train and drink and appreciate the beauty of nature.

Heresay vs first hand experience:

Reading about Ooty is less interesting than visiting Ooty in person. Seeing the flower show when Ooty is in full bloom is equal to seeing it in hundred movies. Walking around Botanical gardens, gazing at the valley below from Doddabetta peak, enjoying the boat ride dipping the hands into the chill waters and looking at the Pykara hydel power project are all scenic beauties one etches in one’s memories for long.

Advantages of travelling:

Life is a book full of surprises. As we travel we meet many new and interesting people. We learn about new cultures, life styles, superstitions and rituals followed in different communities across the globe.

Travelling-testing ground of skills:

During travels, one may face unforeseen emergencies. One’s latent skills of problem-solving come to limelight during such emergencies. One would also be amazed to learn how total strangers bestow kindness he/she may not have expected in crises.


Travel broadens one’s outlook of life. It is also a means of education. It is one of the precious gifts of life. One must travel far and wide to enjoy life-transforming experiences which can never be had inside the four walss of classrooms or home.

Water Conservation


Water is the elixir of life. Earth is the only lonely planet having life-supporting water in abundance. The earth is covered with 71% water. But potable water is only around 1%.

Need to conserve water:

Due to erratic rainfall caused by deforestation, water tables are fast drying up. Global warming is adding to the problem. Even underground water is sucked up by sunlight. Tamil Nadu Government is very strict about water harvesting. Permission to build is given only after ensuring water harvesting facility is added in the blue print.

War for water:

In olden days, wars were waged on rare beauties and gold. But in modem times, the countries which possess large amount of drinking water will become envious target of water hungry nations. Abdul Kalam, the rocket scientist, predicted, for a water can, people would go to the extent of murdering fellow humans. Already interstate quarrels have started over sharing of river waters. On the one hand, the surplus rain water goes to ocean and during summer, there is scarcity of water. There are no check dams on the path of rivers. There is greedy robbery of sand. River beds are becoming moist-free desert-like plains.

Water conservation:

When Israel is able to do agriculture profitably with very little rains, we struggle to ensure lucrative prices for farm products. Many states in India have failed to conserve rain water where surplus rain water rushes to ocean through flood canals.


Unwise use of water is rampant across the country. Through leaky pipes good water goes down the drain. It is the collective responsibility of citizens and municipal authorities to conserve water and sustain life on the earth.

Child Labour


Child labour has emerged as a major issue in India. To address this social issue, NGOs, parents, social activists and society have to join hands to attack this issue. There is a legal provision to safeguard exploited persons beyond the age of 16. But young children don’t get the advantage of legal cover.

Causes of child labour:

In many developing countries, child labour is rampant. The prominent reasons are sibling care, poverty and lack of schooling opportunities. In developing countries 50% of school aged population (in the age group of 5-14) are engaged in child labour.

Distribution of child labour:

In farming industry, child labour is rampant. In labour intensive cotton industries, brick laying industries and in the informal sector we find a large number of children employed. In small scale industries like weaving, match works, fire crackers, children are engaged as bond labourers to lessen the financial burden of parents.


It is a cruel paradox that instead of eliminating child labour, we have NCLP, non-formal schools to give education to child labourers. Main streaming is not a success due to inadequate monitoring. It is comforting to learn that international organization have taken up the cause of fighting against child labour. All must realize that healthy children are the real future of India. Child labour is retarding the progress of the children and the nation.

Mobile Phone – Advantages and Disadvantages


Mobile phone is a palm held device which has revolutionised the world of communication. A mobile phone does not require fixed landline and makes two way communication easy and affordable. Telegram department had to be closed due to the lightning speed with which messages could be sent orally or through SMS.

Mobile functions and advantages:

A mobile phone can be used for watching cricket, movie or just listen to news. Students now google for collecting information for their assignments and projects. A recent survey says 50% of youth read newspapers only through their android phones. The habit of reading books or dictionaries is falling due to quick access to information via mobile and internet services. Through Ola and Uber apps one can summon a call taxi or even order food from Uber eats or Ola food through these apps for a cheap cost. Railway and flight tickets can be booked online.

’ Memorable events can be frozen in photos or videos and saved in the phone itself. Money transfer is now possible through using PayTM, Bhim app or google money app. As many online newspapers are freely available, people save money.

Big Bazaar sells even vegetables through phone. Flipkart and Amazon apps help one to place order for any home appliances at competitive prices.


Social websites such as whatsapp, twitter and facebook keep young ones continuously engaged and crazy for likes. Sometimes evil doers access valuable information and exploit women and children. Sharing vital information, photos, videos, etc. with total strangers can jeopardize one’s honour and life too. Students who get addicted to video games and watching explicit content waste their time and energy and dropout of schools.


Mobile phone is a technological marvel. Similar to any new technology, it has its fascinating traps. One must use mobile phones judiciously and stay out of harm and disgrace.

Consumerism – Wants and Needs


Consumer has the right to decide what he needs and what he wants to buy. But due to the explosive non-stop advertisements in the television, theatres, print media and in hand bills, the consumer is often influenced to buy what he actually does not need.

Problem of plenty:

A good trader needs to find a balance between both the need and want of the consumer. As many malls have sprung up in big cities and departmental stores in small towns, the consumer’s rights to choose what he needs are eroded. There’s a problem of plenty.

Astute traders Vs gullible customers:

As seasons change, consumers want to change the design of their jewels, wardrobes, etc. Astute traders dump a lot of varieties and under the pretext of discount and offers sub-standard commodities are sold to the consumers.


The rules of business have changed widely now. Each consumer is different. Traders who are able to recognize the need of the consumer and supply custom-made or tailored commodities can only satisfy their wants and stabilize their business in the competitive market.

Value of Education


Education helps young ones acquire essential knowledge and skills. In modem times, teacher alone is not the dispenser of knowledge. School alone is not the abode of learning. There are many avenues from where students can learn freely.

Value of education:

Education teaches students to understand the fast changing world and problems of modem society and also evolve solutions in unconventional ways. Education shapes the destiny of a nation. It enables young ones to become a productive member of the civilized society and equips them with the required skill sets to seek jobs and shine in them too.

Education teaches us how to meet day to day challenges and overcome obstacles. It helps us leam how to become a well-rounded personality and perpetuate Indian culture. Education teaches young citizens non-negotiable rules in life and manners too. It lays the foundation stone for the future of children. It guides young ones to lead disciplined life and gives them with skills to earn jobs which would pay them well.


India has to invest more in quality education in our country because education is the prerequisite to the nation’s prosperity and modernization of the country.

Value based Education


Education needs to ennoble human beings. It should teach sensitivity to the social issues which affect the progress of the nation. Education must sensitize students of the sweeping changes occuring around them in modem times.

Importance of value-based Education:

Education without values seems rather to make man a mere clever devil. Nelson Mandela once rightly said, “Education is the most powerful weapon through which you can change the world.” The aim of education should not be confined only to impart knowledge but to inculcate values in young and impressionable minds.

Rote memory vs value based education:

Currently, rote memorization is largely emphasized. Factual information needs to be mastered and not memorised and regurgitated during examinations. This system fails to give any opportunity to think outside the box. As we are moving towards becoming a knowledge economy, moral values have taken a back seat. Juvenile delinquency is threatening the value system of the country. The students may be intelligent and smart but they lack empathy. The schooling system has failed to inculcate the right values among children. It is unfortunate that neither teachers nor the students focus on values for it is not graded. Virtue should never ask for a reward because it is a reward in itself. India would regain its glory when students inculcate values like honesty, patriotism, compassion and hardwork.


Education is a life long process. In real life, it is to be translated into qualities of truthfulness, self-confidence, compassion to all living things, and integration of mind, body and brain. In short, value based education has the capacity to transform the corrupt mind into a very innocent, healthy, natural, fresh mind embellished with agape love.

Essay Writing

Task 1

Write an essay of about 200 words each.

1. The profession you would like to choose


People do have dreams right from their childhood days about their career. Albert Einstein was asked in his death bed, “what did you want to become in your life?” Tears trickled down his eyes and he said, “I wanted to be a plumber. But my vocational instructor drove me out saying . That I don’t have the required skills.

Changing ambitions of children:

Children keep changing their ambitions as their role models change as they grow older and wiser. But I have decided to become a pilot in Indian force. I want to conquer the skies and fly faster than sound. I know it is a challenging career. After the Pulwama attack, the heroic role played by the twelve pilots of Indian Air force that struck at the hearts of terrorists in Pakistan . destroying the hideouts and training schools of terror impressed me. I do foresee the threat to life. Abinandhan, wing commander was released after India’s persistant diplomatic efforts across the world. I was overwhelmed by the united voice of India seeking Abinandhan, every Indian citizen was praying for the safe return of the sky warrior who had shot down F-16 with MiG 21 Bison, an ageing aircraft.

His composure under the custody of Pak army really motivated young people to stay calm during crisis. In Tamil Nadu two soldiers who died in Pulwama attack were mourned by the whole state. Transcending barriers of caste, religion and political alliances, all came to console the family members. Unkown people started donating their life-time savings. So, I have made up my mind to serve the Indian Airforce. I want to live and die as a jawan with legitimate pride. Only in the armed forces, I find dignity in both service and in death.


People pursue various kinds of careers for the sake of monetary aspects. But I choose airman’s career so that I will become a part of the pride of Indian armed forces.


2. The importance of a balanced diet


This is a pertinent topic when the young children are becoming early victims of obesity. Most of the children in cities have got addicted to fat-saturated foods such as pizza, burger, and other fast foods which cause cholesterol. Eating balanced diet (i.e.) nutritious food is crucial if one wants to lead a healthy life style.

Balanced diet:

Balanced food is not about having the right kind of foods alone, but eating them at the right time in the right proportions. Millets and nutritious food items are available in plenty even in rural areas.

Intake of liquids:

Fluids are quite indispensable for the human body to lead a healthy life style. Scientists claim that 80% of the human body is filled with water. It is also a co-factor in many of the metabolic activities in the body leading to metabolic changes. At least two to three litres of water is essential for everyone. This can be achieved by restricting the intake of coffee and tea and consuming water as frequently as possible.

Fresh vegetables and fruits:

Regular intake of fruits and vegetables will invariably avoid many health disorders. It is believed that a balanced diet must contain all five tastes (i.e.) bitter, pungent, sour, sweet and salt. The avoidance of processed or tinned food is good because processed foods are deprived of their nutritional values. Transfat substances in processed and junk foods is harmful to us.

How to eat:

One must chew the food one consumes to ensure easy digestion. One must eat only what is required. Over eating will result in obesity and over weight. One can start diet as per the directions of one’s family doctor or dietician.


If one does not take balanced diet with green vegetables and fibre, one may have to spend a lot to recover the lost health.

3. A memorable journey


One learns a lot about the world and life during travels. One gets to meet new people and find new cultures. I had an opportunity to visit Daijeeling along with my uncle who is working . there.

Darjeeling, the Queen of hill stations:

Daijeeling is a mesmerising hill station located in West Bengal. While travelling in the amazing toy train I was transported to heaven. The lush green hills, beautiful serene monasteries, tea plantations and the clouds that played hide and seek with the Sun really dazzled me.

I spoke to the natives. They understood Hindi and Bengali. Fortunately my uncle knew Bengali and he could translate what people said in English and Tamil which broke the barrier of language. There were frequent mild rainfalls which ran chills down my spine. I can never forget the travel in toy train from Jalpaiguri to Daijeeling. The tracks rise from sea level to 7500 ft in just about 70 km. In order to overcome the gradients, the train used zig zag reverses and loops. Batasia loop is the most famous loop with the figure of eight. As the train slowly went for seven hours, I could drink the beauty of nature and take in the fresh air of the green forests.

I went to Kangchenjunga the third highest mountain in the world with an altitude of 8586 metres above sea. I felt like standing on top of the World. Sunrise from the tiger hill was the most fascinating scenes I can never forget in my life.


I strongly recommend that all my friends must visit Daijeeling once in their life.


A Nice Cup of Tea About The Author


A Nice Cup Of Tea Summary In Tamil Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Prose Chapter 2


Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903-21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by clear prose, awareness of social iniquity, opposition to totalitarianism and candid support of democratic socialism.

Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction and polemical journalism. He is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm (1945) and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of “The 50 greatest British writers since 1945”.


A Nice Cup of Tea Summary in English

About Nice Cup of Tea

Tea is one of the mainstays of civilization in India, China, U.K., Japan, Australia and New Zealand. It is curious because the best manner of making it is the subject of violent diputes. For George Orwell it is a national issue. Orwell himself went through a great deal of trouble in importing tea to drink personally. This essay is probably a reflection of his passion of preparing and drinking tea. It is a discussion on the craft of making a cup of tea.

Another view is that Orwell wrote the essay with political undertones. He used a cup of tea as the instrument for airing his political views.

Missing entry in the cookery book

‘Tea’ is not mentioned in the cookery book. There may be sketchy references on the instructions about the process of making tea.

Tea-making – A subject of controversies

The author admits that tea is a mainstay of civilization of UK, Australia, New Zealand and in Eire. What is the best manner of making a nice cup of tea is the subject of violent disputes between tea lovers.

Eleven tips for making tea Indian tea – the nicest tea

Firstly, the author prefers Indian to Chinese tea. The Chinese tea is economical in the sen e one can drink it without milk. But Chinese tea doesn’t give the stimulation, wisdom or bravery one expects after the intake of a nice cup of tea. The author associates “nice cup of tea” only with Indian tea.

Quantity vs Quality

Tea ought to be made in small quantities (i.e) in a tea pot. Tea made in urn is tasteless. Army tea made in Cauldron tastes of grease and whitewash. Tea pot should be made of China clay or earthen ware. The tea produced with silver or Britannia ware and enamel pots is always inferior in quality. However he agrees that tea made in pewter teapots is not so bad.



Thirdly the pot should be warmed beforehand. This could be done better by placing the tea pot on the hob than by swilling it out with hot water.


Strong vs weak tea

Fourthly, tea must be strong. Six heaped tea spoons of leaves would be right if quart holding pot is to be filled with water to the brim. May be it is ideal when rationing of tea leaves is done. But one cup of strong tea is better than twenty weak ones. True tea lovers, as they age, want to take stronger tea and hence extra rationing of tea is done in ration shops for old age pensioners.


Indicator of quality of tea

Fifthly tea should be put straight into the pot. Muslin bags and strainers or other devices imprison tea. Baskets meant for filtering tea leaves are harmful. One can swallow tea leaves in considerable quantities. Loose tea in the pot is an indicator of quality.


Boiled or Bioling teapot

Sixthly, one should take the teapot to the kettle. The water should be boiled at the moment of impact (i.e.) while pouring it. Some maintain that tea should be poured from freshly boiled water which makes no difference.


Shake well

Seventhly, after making the tea, one must stir well and allow the tea leaves to settle down.


Drink from breakfast cup

One should drink from big breakfast cup which is cylindrical in shape. The flat shallow cup starts cooling off quickly thereby the quality gets lost.


Creamless milk

One should throw away the cream of the milk before mixing it with tea. The cream gives a sickly taste to the tea.


Milk first vs Tea first schools

A Nice Cup Of Tea Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Prose Chapter 2


Tenthly, the author believes strongly that tea must be poured and stirred. Then the milk must be added. This would exactly regulate the amount of milk poured. If milk is already poured and tea is added the quantity and impact of tea will not be optimum.


Sugarless tea- the nicest tea

Lastly the author disapproves of Russian tea or tea that is taken with sugar. He doubts the sanity of the choice of tea with sugar as it would really spoil the taste of tea. He recommends misguided individuals who take tea with sugar to switch over to sugarless tea for a fortnight. He guarantees that they would not go back to sweet tea as they would realize the real taste of tea.


Mysterious social etiquette

Some claim that it is vulgar to take tea from the saucer. There are other advantages of tea leaves such as telling fortunes, predicting the arrival of guests, feeding rabbits, healing bums and sweeping the carpets.



The author tries

to reiterate the point only by using boiling water one can get twenty strong cups of tea from two ounces of tea leaves given in ration. The point that sugarless tea is good is endorsed by doctors also as a good practice.


A Nice Cup of Tea Summary in Tamil


| இந்தியா, சீனா, இங்கிலாந்து. ஜப்பான், ஆஸ்திரேலியா மற்றும் நியூசிலாந்து நாட்டு சமுதாயத்தினரிடம் முக்கியமானவையாகக் கருதப்பட்டவைகளுள் தேயிலையும் ஒன்றாகும். இதன் மேல் பேரார்வம் கொண்டதன் காரணம் இதன் செய்முறை குறித்து தீவிர சர்ச்சை நிலவுவதே. ஜியார்ஜ் ஆர்வெல்லுக்கோ தேசிய அளவிலான பிரச்சனையாக அது இருந்தது. போர் தன் சுயதேவைக்கு தேயிலையை இறக்குமதி செய்வதில் பெருத்த சங்கடத்திற்கு அவர் உள்ளாக வேண்டியிருந்தது. இந்தக் கட்டுரை அநேகமாக அவர் தேனீர் தயார் செய்வதிலும் அதை அருந்துவதிலும் கொண்ட ஆர்வத்தின் பிரதிபலிப்பே ஆகும். ஆக, இது தேனீர் தயாரிப்பின் கைப்பக்குவத்தை விவாதிக்கக் கூடிய ஒன்றே ஆகும். ஆர்வெல் இந்தக் கட்டுரையை அரசியல் அடித்தளத்துடன் எழுதியுள்ளார் என்ற மற்றொரு கருத்தும் நிலவுகிறது. அவர் தன் அரசியல் கருத்துக்களை வெளிப்படுத்த ஒரு கோப்பை தேனீர் அருந்துவதைக் கருவியாகக் கையாண்டுள்ளார்.


சமையற்குறிப்பில் விடுபட்ட பதிவு:



தேனீர் பெரும்பாலான சமையற்குறிப்புப் புத்தகங்களில் குறிப்பிடப்படுவதில்லை. தேனீர் தயாரிப்பு மேலோட்டமாக சில சமையல் குறிப்புகளில் காணப்படலாம்.


தேனீர் தயாரிப்பு-சர்ச்சைக்குரிய விஷயம்:

இங்கிலாந்து, ஆஸ்திரேலியா, நியூசிலாந்து மற்றும் ஐயரில் நாடுகளில் முக்கியமான ஒன்று தேநீர் என்பதை ஒப்புக்கொள்கிறார். எந்த விதத்தில் நல்ல சுவையுள்ள தேனீர் தயாரிப்பது என்பதே தேனீர் பிரியர்களிடத்தே உண்டாகும் தீவிர சர்ச்சை ஆகும்.


தேனீர் தயாரிப்பில் 11 குறிப்புகள்:

இந்தியத் தேனீர் இன்பகரமான தேனீர். முதலாவதாக சிக்கனம் எனப் பார்த்தால் பால் சேர்க்காமல் சீனத் | தேயிலையைப் பருகலாம் என்றாலும் ஆசிரியர் இந்தியத் | தேயிலையே சாலச் சிறந்தது எனக் கூறுகிறார். ஆனால், | நல்ல தேனீர் அருந்திய பின் ஒருவர் எதிர்பார்க்கக்கூடிய ஊக்கம், விவேகம் அல்லது வீரம் சீனத் தேனீர் கொடுப்பதில்லை. இன்பகரமான தேனீருடன் ஆசிரியர் தொடர்புபடுத்துவது இந்தியத் தேயிலையையே.


அளவு மற்றும் தரம்:

இரண்டாவதாக தேனீர் சிறிய அளவிலேயே தயாரிக்கப்பட வேண்டும். கெண்டியில் தயாரிக்கப்படும் தேனீர் சுவைமிக்கதாக இருப்பதில்லை. இராணுவத்தினருக்கு பெரிய அண்டாக்களில் தயாரிக்கப்படும் தேனீர் எண்ணெய் பிசிர் மற்றும் சுண்ணாம்புக் கரைசலின் சுவையைக் கொடுக்கும். தேனீர் தயாரிக்கும் பாத்திரம் சீனக் களிமண் அல்லது களிமண்ணால் செய்யப்பட்டிருக்க வேண்டும், வெள்ளி, பிரிட்டானியா சாமான்கள் மற்றும் எனாமல் பூசப்பட்ட பாத்திரங்களில் தயாரிக்கப்படும் தேனீர் தரம் குறைந்ததே. ஆனால் காரீயத் தேனீர் கெண்டியில் தயாரிக்கப்படும் தேனீர் அவ்வளவு மோசமாக இருப்பதில்லை என்பதை ஆசிரியர் ஆமோதிக்கிறார்.



மூன்றாவதாக, தேனீர் பாத்திரத்தை தேனீர் போடுவதற்கு முன்னதாக சூடுபடுத்திக் கொள்ளவேண்டும். இதை அடுப்பின் அருகில் உள்ள மேடை மீது சிறிது நேரம் வைத்து பிறகு கொதிக்கும் நீரை விட்டு அலச வேண்டும்.


கசாயம் அதிகமுள்ள மற்றும் கசாயம் குறைந்த தேனீர்:

நான்காவதாக, தேயிலை கசாயம் நிறைந்ததாக | இருக்கவேண்டும். கால் கேலன் (3.785 லிட்டர்) (Quarter | Cup) அளவு கொண்ட கெண்டியில் விளிம்பு வரை நீரை நிறைத்து அதில் ஆறு தேக்கரண்டி நிறைய | தேயிலைத்தூள் போதுமான அளவாகும். இதுவே

போதுமான அளவுகோல் எனக் கொள்ளலாம். ஆனால், | 20 கோப்பை கசாயம் குறைந்த தேனீரைக் காட்டிலும் ஒரு கோப்பை கசாயம் நிறைந்த தேனீர் சிறந்தது. உண்மையான | தேனீர் பிரியர்கள் வயதாக ஆக அதிக கசாயம் மிகுந்த | தேனீரை உட்கொள்ள விரும்புவதால் நியாய விலைக் | கடைகளில் கூடுதல் தேயிலை ஓய்வூதியம் பெறுபவருக்கு கொடுக்கப்படுகிறது.


தேயிலையின் தரத்தைப் பாதிக்கும் கூறுகள் யாவை?

ஐந்தாவதாக தேயிலையைக் கெண்டியில் போட | வேண்டும். மஸ்லின் பை மற்ற வடிகட்டிகள் மூலம் | தேயிலையை வடிகட்ட உதவும் தேயிலை பைகள் ஆபத்தானவை. அளவுக்கு அதிகமான தேயிலையை ஒருவர் விழுங்கிவிட வாய்ப்புள்ளது. ஆனால் அது உடல்நலத்துக்கு ஒரு போதும் கேடு விளைவிக்காது. அது உடல்நலத்துக்கு நன்று. கெண்டியில் (kettle) போட்டுத் தயாரிக்கும் தேயிலை உயர்தர வகைக்கு சான்று.


கொதித்த அல்லது கொதிக்கும் கெண்டி:

ஆறாவதாக, கொதித்த தேநீரை கெண்டியில் ஊற்ற வேண்டும். ஊற்றும் போது நீர் கொதிக்க வைக்கப்பட வேண்டும். சிலர் தேனீரை கொதித்த நீரில் | போட வேண்டும் என்பர். அதனால் எந்த வித்தியாசமும் இல்லை. நன்றாகக் கெண்டியை குலுக்கினால் போதும்.


நன்றாக கிளறுங்கள்

ஏழாவதாக தேனீர் தயாரித்த பிறகு நன்றாக கிளறி தேயிலைத் தூள் கீழே தங்குமாறு செய்யவேண்டும்.


பசியாறும் கோப்பையில் ஊற்றி குடிக்கவேண்டும்:

எட்டாவதாக கோள (Cylinderical) வடிவிலான பெரிய பசியாற்றும் கோப்பையில் ஊற்றிப் பருகவேண்டும். தட்டையான கோப்பைகளில் ஊற்றுவதால் எளிதில் சூடு ஆறி அதன் சுவை பருகும்போதே தொலைந்துவிடுகிறது.


வெண்ணைய் இல்லாத பால்:

ஒன்பதாவதாக தேனீருடன் கலப்பதுக்கு | முன் பாலில் உள்ள வெண்ணையை அப்புறப்படுத்த வேண்டும். அந்த வெண்ணைய் நுரை தேனீரில் கலந்து பிசுபிசுப்புத் தன்மையைக் கொடுக்கிறது.


முதலில் பால் மற்றும் முதலில் தேனீர்:

பத்தாவதாக, கதையாசிரியர் தேயிலை நீரை முதலில் ஊற்றி கலக்கவேண்டும் என நம்புகிறார். அதன் பின் பால் சேர்க்கப்பட வேண்டும். இது நாம் எவ்வளவு பால் உபயோகிக்கிறோம் என்பதைத் திட்டமிடச் செய்யும், பாலை முதலில் எடுத்துக்கொண்டு தேனீரை ஊற்றுவது ஏற்ற வகையான அனுகூலத்தைத் தராது.


சர்க்கரை இல்லாத தேனீர்-இனிமையான தேனீர்:

கடைசியாக ஆசிரியர் ரஸ்யன் வகை தேயிலை அல்லது சர்க்கரை சேர்த்த தேனீரை ஆட்சேபிக்கிறார். சர்க்கரை சேர்த்த தேனீரின் தன்மையை அவர் சந்தேகிக்கிறார். ஏனெனில், அது தேனீரின் சுவையைக் கெடுத்து விடுகிறது. வழிநடத்தப்பட்டவர்களே தவறுதலாக தேனீருடன் சர்க்கரை சேர்த்துக் கொள்கிறார்கள். அவர்களை சர்க்கரை சேர்க்காத தேனீருக்கு மாறும்படி சிபாரிசு செய்கிறார். அவர்கள் மறுபடியும் சர்க்கரை சேர்த்த தேனீருக்கு திரும்ப மாட்டார்கள் என உத்திரவாதம் அளிக்கிறார். ஏனெனில், அவர்கள் இரு வார காலத்தில் தேனீரின் மெய்யான சுவையை அறிந்திருப்பார்கள்.


மர்மமான சமூக ஆசாரம்:

சிலர் பீங்கான் தட்டில் தேனீரை ஊற்றி அருந்துவது அருவெறுப்பு உடையது என ஏன் கருதுகிறார்கள்? என்றும் மற்றும் தேயிலை உபயோகத்தின் இரண்டாம் பட்சமான உபயோகமான குறி சொல்வது, விருந்தினர் வருகையை அறிவிப்பது, முயலுக்கு ஆகாரமாகக் கொடுப்பது, தீப்புண்ணை ஆற்றுவது மற்றும் சமுக்காளத்தைக் கூட்டுவது என மர்மமான சமூகச் சடங்குகளும் தேனீர் கெண்டியைச் சூழ்ந்துள்ளது.



நியாய விலைக் கடைகளில் கொடுக்கும் 2 அவுன்ஸ் தேயிலையைக் கொதிக்கும் நீரில் இட்டால் 20 கோப்பை நிறைந்த கசாயம் கூடிய தேனீர் கிடைக்கும் என்று அறிவுறுத்துகிறார். சர்க்கரை இல்லாத தேனீர் நல்ல பழக்கம் என்னும் கருத்தை மருத்துவர்களும் வலியுறுத்துகிறார்கள்.


A Nice Cup of Tea Glossary

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