10th Social Science Samacheer Guide

10th Social Science Guide Geography – Unit 5 Answers

10th Social Science Guide Geography – Unit 5 Answers

10th Standard Social Science Solution | Lesson.15 India – Population, Transport, Communication & Trade

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10th Social Science Guide Geography – Unit 5 Answers

10th Social Science Geography Guide – Unit 5 India – Population, Transport, Communication & Trade

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. The scientific study of different aspects of the population is called

  1. Cartography
  2. Demography
  3. Anthropology
  4. Epigraphy

Ans: Demography

2. transport provides door-to-door services.

  1. Railways
  2. Roadways
  3. Airways

Ans: Roadways

3. The length of Golden Quadrilateral superhighways in India is

  1. 5846 km
  2. 5942 km
  3. 5630 km
  4. 5800 km

Ans: 5846 km

4. The National Remote sensing Centre(NRSC) is located at .

  1. Bengaluru
  2. Chennai
  3. Delhi
  4. Hyderabad

Ans: Hyderabad

5. The transport useful in inaccessible areas is

  1. Roadways
  2. Railways
  3. Airways
  4. Waterways

Ans: Airways

6. Which of the following is associated with helicopter service?

  1. Air India
  2. Indian Airlines
  3. Vayudoot
  4. Pavan Hans

Ans: Pavan Hans

7. The major import item of India is

  1. Cement
  2. Jewells
  3. Tea
  4. Petroleum

Ans: Petroleum

II. Match the following:

  • 1. Border Road Organisation – Satellite communication
  • 2. INSAT –  Impact of Urbanization
  • 3. Mazagaon Dock – 1990
  • 4. Urban sprawl – Mumbai
  • 5. Konkan Railways – 1960
  • ———————- Hyderabad

Ans: 1- E, 2 -A, 3 – D, 4 – B, 5 – C

III. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. What is migration? State its types.

  • It is the movement of people across regions and territories. It can be-
  1. i) Internal migration (within a country) or
  2. ii) International (between the countries) migration.
  • Internal migration does not change the size of the population of a country but it influences the distribution of population in a nation.
  • International migration does not have much impact on the population of a country.

2. Write any four advantages of railways.

  • It helps us in moving bulk goods such as iron ore, coal mineral oil, etc., from one centre to another.
  • Railways serve as chief mode of transport for both passengers and goods
  • It forms a major employment sector giving jobs to lakhs of people.
  • It helps in agricultural development by connecting urban to rural areas.
  • It helps in connecting famines by quick movement of essential commodities.

3. Write a note on Pipeline network transport in India

  • Pipelines provided a very convenient mode of transport to connect oil and natural gas fields, refineries and to the markets.
  • The three important network large network of pipeline in the country are
  • i) Oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur,
  • ii) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab and
  • iii) Gas pipeline from the Hazira in Gujarat to Jagadispur in Uttar Pradesh.

4. State the major Inland waterways of India

The major waterways are

National waterway 1 :

  • It extends between Haldia and Allahabad, measures 1620 km and includes the stretches of the Ganga- Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system.

National Waterway 2 :

This waterway includes the stretch of the Brahmaputra river between Dhubri and Sadiya a distance of 891 km.

National Waterway 3 :

This waterway extends between Kollam and Kottapuram in the state of Kerala. It is the first national waterway in the country with 24 hour

5. What is communication? What are its types?

  • z Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts and ideas. Technology does wonders in communication fields.
  • Communication is categorized in to personal and mass communications.
  • The exchange of information between the individuals is called personal Communication. Example – Postal letters, telephones, mobile phones, etc.
  • Communication that helps millions of people to get the information at the same time is known as mass communication. Example – News papers, televisions, radios, etc.

6. Define “International trade”.

  • Trade carried on between two or more countries is called International trade.
  • It is also called as external trade or foreign trade.
  • Waterways and Airways play a vital role in this type of trade.
  • Foreign currency is involved in international trade.

7. State the merits of Roadways.

  • Roads play an important role in carrying goods and passengers for short, medium and long distances.
  • It is highly suitable for short distance services.
  • It is comparatively easy and cheap to construct and maintain roads.
  • It can establish easy contact between farms, fields, factories and markets.
  • It is cost efficient and can provide door to door transport services.

IV. Distinguish between

1. Density of population and Growth of population.

Density of population
  • 1. It is a better measure of understanding the variation in distribution of population
  • 2. It is expressed as number of persons per unit area usually per sq.km.
  • 3. The most densely populated state of India is Bihar.
Growth of population
  • 1. Population growth is the difference between birth rate and death rate plus migration of people per year
  • 2. It is expressed in percentage.
  • 3. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country.

2. Personal communication and mass communication.

Personal communication
  • 1. The exchange of information between the individuals is called personal communication.
  • 2. It includes postal service, telephone, mobile phone, internet, etc.
  • 3. In this system, news spreads slowly to the public.
Mass communication
  • 1. The spread of information among the people at a same time is known as mass communication
  • 2. It includes radio, television, newspapers, etc.
  • 3. The news spread quickly among the people.

3. Print Media and Electronic Media.

Print Media
  • 1. It delivers news and information through printed publications.
  • 2. One should be literate to read the information provided.
  • 3. Live discussion is not possible
Electronic Media
  • 1. It delivers news and information through electronic gadgets.
  •  2. Literacy is not necessary. Anyone can watch and hear information provided.
  • 3. Live discussion is possible

4. Roadways and Railways.

  • 1. Indian roadways touch nook and corner of the country.
  • 2.  Laying the roads and its maintenance are cheaper.
  • 3. Bulk goods cannot be sent easily.
  • 1. It connects important towns, cities and industrial centres.
  • 2. Laying the railway tracks and its maintenance are costlier.
  • 3.  Bulk goods can be sent easily from one place to another.

5. Waterways and Airways.

  • 1. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
  • 2.  It is suitable to carry passengers, freights and mail.
  • 3. Airways pollute the atmosphere
  • 1. Airways are the costliest and fastest mode of transport.
  • 2. It is suitable to carry heavy and bulky goods at low cost.
  • 3. It is fuel efficient and environment friendly more of transport.

6. Internal and International trade.

Internal trade
  • 1. It is carried within the domestic territory of a country.
  • 2. It is also known as Domestic trade or Local trade.
  • 3. This trade is mostly based on the nation’s currency.
International trade
  • 1. It is a trade carried on between two or more countries.
  • 2. This is known as Foreign trade or External trade.
  • 3. This trade is carried on foreign currency.

10th Social Science Guide Geography – Unit 5 Answers

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. What is urbanization? Explain its problem.

The process of society’s transformation from rural to urban is known as urbanization. The level of urbanization of a place is assessed based on the size of population of the towns and cities and the proportion of population engaged in non agricultural sectors.

Impact of urbanization:

  • Urbanization and population concentration go hand–in–hand and are closely related to each other.
  • A rapid rate of urbanization in a society is taken as an indicator of its economic development. Urbanization is increasing rapidly in the developing countries including India.
  • Rural to urban migration leads to population explosion in urban areas.
  • By 2030, more than 50% of India’s population is expected to live in urban areas.

The following are the major problems of urbanization in India.

  • i) It creates urban sprawl.
  • ii) It makes overcrowding in urban centres.
  • iii) It leads to shortage of houses in urban areas.
  • iv) It leads to the formation of slums.
  • v) It increases traffic congestion in cities.
  • vi) It creates water scarcity in cities.
  • vii) It creates drainage problem.
  • viii) It poses the problem of solid waste management.
  • ix) It increases the rate of crime.

2. Explain the importances of satellite communication in India.

  • The use of Satellite in getting a continuous and synoptic view of larger area has made this communication system very vital for the country.
  • Satellite images are used for weather forecasting, monitoring of natural calamities, Surveillance of border areas, etc.
  • The communication through satellites emerged as a new era in communication in our country after the establishment of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 1969.
  • Satellite system in India can be grouped into two-the Indian National Satellite
  • System (INSAT) and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS).
  • The INSAT, established in 1983, is a multipurpose system for telecommunication, meteorological observation and for various other programs.
  • The INSAT series are used for relaying signals to television, telephone, radio, mobile phone.
  • It is also useful in weather detection, internet and military applications.
  • The INSAT series, GSAT series, KALPANA-1, HAMSAT, EDUSAT are the major communication satellite used for communication purpose.
  • INSAT-1B launched on 30th August 1983 is the first communication satellite in INSAT series.
  • GSAT–7A is the recent launch (December 19, 2018) for communication programs.

3. Classify and explain the roadways in India.

Roads play an important role in carrying goods and passengers for short, medium and long distances. For the purpose of construction and maintenance, roads are classified into

  1. National Highways
  2. State Highways
  3. District roads,
  4. Rural roads
  5. Border Roads
  6. Golden Quadrilateral
  7. North-South and East-West Corridors
  8. Expressways
  9. International Highways

National Highways:

  • National Highways are running through length and breadth of the country. It connects capitals of states, major ports, rail junctions, industrial and tourist centres.
  • Ministry of Road and transport and Highways of India is responsible for the development and maintenance of National Highways.

State Highways

  • The state highways are usually roads that link important cities, towns and district headquarters within the state.
  • They connect them with national highways or highways of neighbouring states.
  • These roads are maintained by state governments.

District Roads

  • District Roads provide connectivity between the district and taluk headquarters with the state highways and national highways.
  • District Roads are constructed and maintained by the Public Works Department of
  • the states.

Rural Roads (Village Roads)

  • Rural roads connectivity is a key component of rural development.
  • It links the different villages with their neighbouring towns.
  • They are maintained by Village Panchayats.
  • These are the roads of strategic importance in border areas.
  • They are constructed and maintained by Border Roads Organization.

Golden Quadrilateral

  • Golden Quadrilateral is a project launched to connect four Indian metropolitan cities namely Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai-Delhi in 1999.
  • It is a 5,846 km long road.

North-South and East-west Corridors:

  • North-South corridor aims at connecting Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir with Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu with 4,076 km long road.
  • The East-West corridor has been planned to connect Silchar in Assam with the port
  • town of Porbandar in Gujarat.


  • These are multi-lane good quality highways for high speed traffic.
  • Some of the important expressways are-
  1. (i) Mumbai-Pune Road,
  2. (ii) Kolkata-Dumdum Airport road
  3. (iii) Durgapur-Kolkata road and
  4. (iv) Yamuna expressway between Delhi and Agra.

International Highways:

  • These are the roads that link India with neighbouring countries for promoting harmonious relationship with them. These highways have been constructed with an aid from World Bank.
  • These roads connect important highways of India with those of the neighbouring countries such as Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
  • Road density is the highest in Kerala and lowest in Jammu &Kashmir.

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