10th Social Science Samacheer Guide

10th Social Science Guide History Lesson 5 Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century

10th Social Science Guide History Lesson 5 Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century

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10th History Lesson.5 Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. In which year was Sati abolished?

  1. 1827
  2. 1829
  3. 1826
  4. 1927

Ans : 1829

2. What was the name of the Samaj founded by Dayanand Saraswati?

  1. Arya Samaj
  2. Brahmo Samaj
  3. Prarthana Samaj
  4. Adi Brahmo Samaj

Ans : Arya Samaj

3. Whose campaign and work led to the enactment of Widow Remarriage Reform

  1. Act of 1856?
  2. Iswarchandra Vidyasagar
  3. Raja Rammohan Roy
  4. Annie Besant
  5. Jyotiba Phule

Ans : Iswarcahndra Vidyasagar

4. Whose voice was Rast Goftar?

  1. Parsi Movement
  2. Aligarh Movement
  3. Ramakrishna Mission
  4. Dravida Mahajana Sabha

Ans : Parsi Movement

5. Who was the founder of Namdhari Movement?

  1. Baba Dayal Das
  2. Baba Ramsingh
  3. Gurunanak
  4. Jyotiba Phule

Ans : Baba Dayal Das

6. Who was the founder of Widow Remarriage Association?

  1. G. Ranade
  2. Devendranath Tagore
  3. Jyotiba Phule
  4. Ayyankali

Ans : M.G.Ranade

  1. Who was the author of the book Satyarthaprakash ?
  2. Dayananda Saraswathi
  3. Iyothee Thassar
  4. Annie Besant
  5. Swami Shradanatha

Ans : Dayananda Saraswathi

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. ________ founded the Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sangam. Ans : Ramalinga Swamigal
  2. The founder of Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was ________. Ans : Mahadev Govind Ranade
  3. Gulumgir was written by ________. Ans : Jyotiba Phule
  4. Ramakrishna Mission was established by ________. Ans : Swami Vivekananda
  5. ________ was the forerunner of Akali Movement. Ans : Singh Sabha
  6. Oru paisa Tamilan was started by ________. Ans : Iyothee Thassar

III. Choose the Correct Statement

1. i) Raja Rammohan Roy preached monotheism.

ii) He encouraged idolatry.

iii) He published tracts condemning social evils.

iv) Raja Rammohan Roy was supported by Governor General William Bentinck.

  • a.i) is correct
  • b.i) and ii) are correct
  • c.i), ii) and iii) are correct
  • d.i), iii) and iv) are correct

Ans: i), iii) and iv)are correct

2. i) Prarthana Samaj was founded by Dr. Atma Ram Pandurang.

ii) Prarthana Samaj encouraged inter-dining and inter-caste marriage.

iii) Jyotiba Phule worked for the upliftment of men.

iv) Prarthana Samaj had it’s origin in the Punjab.

  • a.i) is correct
  • b.ii) is correct
  • c.i) and ii) are correct
  • d.iii) and iv) are correct

Ans : i) and ii) are correct

3. i) Ramakrishna Mission was actively involved in social causes such as education, health care, relief in time of calamities.

ii) Ramakrishna emphasised the spiritual union with god through ecstatic practices.

iii) Ramakrishna established the Ramakrishna Mission.

iv) Ramakrishna opposed the Partition of Bengal.

  1. a) i) is correct b) i) and ii) are correct
  2. c) iii) is correct d) i), iii) or iv) correct

Ans : i) and ii) are correct

  1. Assertion : Jyotiba Phule opened orphanages and homes for widows

Reason : Jyotiba Phule opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage

  1. Assertion is correct but reason is not apt to the assertion
  2. Assertion is correct and the reason is apt to the assertion
  3. Both are wrong
  4. Reason is correct but assertion is irrelevant

Ans : Assertion is correct but reason is not apt to the assertion


IV. Match the following:

  1. Oru paisa Tamilan – Widows Remarriage Tamilan Reform Act
  2. Thiruvarutpa – Nirankari
  3. Baba Dayal Das – Adi Bramo Samaj
  4. Iswarchandra Vidyasagar – Journal
  5. Debendranath – Songs of Grace

Ans: 1 -D, 2 – E, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – C

V. Answer briefly:

1. Mention the four articles of faith laid down by Maharishi Debendranath Tagore?

The four articles of faith are

  • In the beginning there was nothing. The one Supreme Being alone existed who created the Universe.
  • He alone is the God of Truth, Infinite Wisdom, Goodness, and Power, eternal, omnipresent, the One without second.
  • Our salvation depends on belief in Him and in His worship in this world and the next.
  • Belief consists in loving Him and doing His will.

2. Discuss Mahadev Govind Ranade’s contribution to social reforms.

  • Mahadev Govind Ranade was one of the distinguished members of Prarthana Samaj
  • He devoted his life develop inter-caste marriage, widow remarriage and improvement of women and depressed classes.
  • He was the founder of the Widow Marriage Association, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and Deccan Education Society.
  • He campaigned and raised funds to educate the lower caste Pulaya people.

3. Write a note on reforms of Ramalinga Adigal.

  • He showed his compassion and merch on all living things including plants.
  • He established the Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sangam which means ‘Society for Pure Truth in Universal self-hood’.
  • He also established a free feeding house for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadaluri.
  • His voluminous songs were compiled and published under the title ‘Thiruvarutpa’.

4. List the social evils eradicated by Brahmo Samaj.

Due to the effort of Brahmo Samaj, Sati was abolished. It tried to eradicate polygamy, idol worship, subjugation (suppression) of women, child marriage, meaningless religious rites and ceremonies.


5. Highlight the work done by Jyotiba Phule for the welfare of the poor and the marginalized.

  • He opened the first school for ‘untouchables’ in Poona.
  • He launched the ‘Satyashodak Samaj (Truth Seekers Society) to stir the non-Brahmin masses to self-respect and ambition.
  • He opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage.
  • Jyotiba Phule and his wife, Savitribai Phule devoted their lives for the uplift of the depressed classes and women.
  • Jyotiba Phule opened orphanages and homes for widows.

VII. Answer in detail;

1. Discuss the Circumstances that led to the Reform movements of 19™ Century.

  • English education introduced with the objective of producing clerks also produced a new English educated middle class.
  • This class came under the influence of western ideas and thoughts.
  • Christianity also had its effect on the newly emerging middle class.
  • The educated middle class began to take a lead in political as well as in reform movements.
  • The Indians were inspired by the western ideas of reason, equality, liberty and humanity.
  • The Indian reformers were quite hesitant to subject their old notions and habits to critical scrutiny. Instead they attempted to harmonize both Indian and western cultures.
  • The scholars and writers were an inspiration for the people towards the reform movements.
  • As the society was having a number of evil practices like sati, child marriage and polygamy there was an urgent need for reform in the society.
  • These were the circumstances that led to the reform movement in the 19™ century.

2. Evaluate the contributions of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Swami Vivekananda to regenerate Indian society.


  • Ramakrishna was a simple priest of Dakshineswar Kali temple.
  • He emphasised the spiritual union with God through ecstatic practices such as singing bhajans.
  • In his view, all religions contain the universal elements which if practised would lead to salvation.
  • He said, “Jiva is Siva”.
  • He said not Mercy, but service for man must be regarded as God.
  • Ramakrishna’s primary achievement was his ability to attract educated youth who were dissatisfied with the rational orientation of religious reform organizations such as the Brahmo Samaj.
  • After his death his disciples organised themselves as a religious community and undertook the task of making his life and teaching known in India and abroad.
  • Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission. It did not restrict itself to religious activities.
  • But it was involved in social causes such as education health care and relief in times of calamities.

Swami Vivekananda:

  • Swami Vivekananda was the prime follower of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
  • He was dissatisfied with conventional philosophical positions and practices.
  • He advocated the practical vedanta of service to humanity.
  • He attacked the tendency to defend every institution simply because it was connected with religion.
  • He made a call to Indian youth to regenerate Hindu society.
  • His ideas bread a sense of self confidence among Indians.
  • He became famous for his address on Hinduism at the World Congress of Religions at Chicago.
  • Many youths were inspired by Vivekananda.

3. Write an essay on the role played by the 19″ Century reformers towards the cause of women.

The influence of Western ideas and Christianity created a new awakening in 19™ century British India

Raja Rammohan Roy:

  • Raja Rammohan Roy was deeply concerned with the prevailing customs of Sati, Child Marriage and Polygamy.
  • He published tracts against them and petitioned the government to legislate against them.
  • He advocated the rights of widows to remarry.
  • He wanted polygamy to end. Rammohnan roy condemned the subjugation of women and opposed the prevailing ideas ‘women were inferior to men’. He strongly advocated education for women.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:

  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar provided evidence from scriptures that there was no sanction for burning of widows or for the prohibition on the remarriage of widows.
  • He played a leading role in promoting education of girls.
  • He dedicated his whole life for the betterment of the child widows of the Hindu society.
  • It resulted in the widows Remarriage Reform act of 1856. This act was Intended to improve the lot of child widows and save them from perpetual widowhood.

M.G Ranade :

  • G Ranade was the founder of the Widow Marriage Association.
  • He advocated inter-caste marriage, widow remarriage, improvement of woman and depressed classes.


Jyotiba Phule :

  • Jyotiba Phule worked for the cause of women.
  • He opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage.
  • He opened orphanages and homes for widows.

Other Reformers:

  • The leader of the sabha opposed both infant marriage and use of astrology.
  • Baba Ram Singh considered both men and women equal and accepted widow remarriage. It prohibited the dowry system and child marriage.
  • Ramalinga established a free feeding house for everyone irrespective of caste at Vadalur (1867), in the wake of a terrible famine in South India in 1866.

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