10th Social Science Samacheer Guide

10th Social Science Guide History Lesson 1 Outbreak of World War I and Its Aftermath

10th Social Science Guide History Lesson 1 Outbreak of World War I and Its Aftermath

10th Social Science Book Back Anwer English Medium | Lesson.1 Outbreak of World War I and Its Aftermath

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10th Social Science Guide History Lesson 1 Outbreak of World War I and Its Aftermath

I. Choose the correct answer

1. What were the three major empires shattered by the end of First World War?

  1. Germany, Austria Hungary, and the Ottomans
  2. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
  3. Spain, Portugal, and Italy
  4. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Ans : Germany, Austria Hungary, and the Ottomans

2. Which country emerged as the strongest in East Asia towards the close of nineteenth century?

  1. China
  2. Japan
  3. Korea
  4. Mongolia

Ans : Japan 

3. Who said “imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism”?

  1. Lenin
  2. Marx
  3. Sun Yat-sen
  4. Mao Tsetung

Ans : Lenin

4. What is the Battle of Marne remembered for?

  1. air warfare
  2. trench warfare
  3. submarine warfare
  4. ship warfare

Ans : Trench warfare

5. To which country did the first Secretary General of League of Nations belong?

  1. Britain
  2. France
  3. Dutch
  4. USA

Ans : Britain 

6. Which country was expelled from the League of Nations for attacking Finland?

  1. Germany
  2. Russia
  3. Italy
  4. France

Ans: b) Russia.

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. Japan forced a war on China in the year ________  Ans : 1894.
  1. The new state of Albania was created according to the Treaty of ________ signed in May 1913. Ans : London
  1. Japan entered into an alliance with England in the year ________ . Ans : 1902
  1. In the Balkans ________ had mixed population. Ans : Macidonia
  1. In the battle of Tannenberg ________ suffered heavy losses.  Ans : Russia
  1. ________ as Prime Minister represented France in Paris Peace Conference. Ans : Clemenceau
  1. Locarno Treaty was signed in the year ________. Ans : 1925

III. Choose the correct statement

1. i) The Turkish Empire contained many non-Turkish people in the Balkans.

ii) Turkey fought on the side of the central powers.

iii) Britain attacked Turkey and captured Constantinople.

iv) Turkey’s attempt to attack Suez Canal but were repulsed.

  1. i) and ii) are correct
  2. i) and iii) are correct
  3. iv) is correct
  4. i), ii) and iv) are correct

Ans : i), ii) and iv) are correct


2. Assertion : Germany and the United States were producing cheaper manufactured goods and capturing England’s markets.

Reason : Both the countries produced required raw material for their industries.

Both A and R are correct

A is right but R is not the correct reason

Both A and R are wrong

R is right but A is wrong.

Ans : Both A and R are correct 

3. Assertion: The first European attempts to carve out colonies in Africa resulted in bloody battles.

Reason: There was stiff resistance from the native population.

Both A and R are correct

A is right but R is not the correct reason

Both A and R are wrong

R is right but A is wrong.

Ans : Both A and R are correct.

10th Social Science Guide History Lesson 1 Outbreak of World War I and Its Aftermath

IV. Match the following

  1. Treaty of Brest- Litovsk – Versailles
  2. Jingoism – Turkey
  3. Kemal Pasha – Russia with Germany
  4. Emden – England
  5. Hall of Mirrors – Madras

Ans: 1 – C, 2 – D, 3 – B, 4 – E, 5 – A

V. Answer briefly

1. How do you assess the importance of Sino-Japanese War?

  • In 1894 she forced a war on China.
  • The crushing defeat of China by little Japan in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) surprised the world.
  • Despite the warning of the three great powers Russia, Germany and France – Japan annexed the Liaotung peninsula with Port Arthur.
  • By this action Japan proved that it was the strongest nation of the East Asia.

2. Name the countries in the Triple Entente.

  • Britain, France and Russia are the countries in the Triple Entente

3. What were the three militant forms of nationalism in Europe?

The three militant forms of nationalism were

  • England’s jingoism,
  • France’s chauvinism
  • Germany’s Kultur

4. What do you know of trench warfare?

  • Trenches or ditches dug by troops enabled soldiers to safely stand and
  • protect themselves from enemy fire.
  • The main lines of trenches were connected to each other and to the rear by a series of linking trenches
  • Through the linking trenches, food, ammunition, fresh troops, mail and orders were delivered.

5. What was the role of Mustafa Kemal Pasha?

  • Mustafa Kemal Pasha played a remarkable role for Turkey’s rebirth as a nation.
  • Kemal Pasha modernised Turkey and changed it out of all recognition.
  • He put an end to the Sultanate and Caliphate with the support of Soviet Union.

6. List out any two causes for the failure of the League of Nations.

  • The unanimity of members was required for all its decisions on political issues. Since it lacked the military power of its own, it could no enforce its decisions.
  • The founders of League of Nations underestimated the power of nationalism. The Principle of “collective security” could not be applied in actual practice.

VI. Answer the following in detail

1. Discuss the main causes of the First World War.

European Alliances and Counter-Alliances

  • In 1900 five of the European Great Powers were divided into two armed camps.
  1. One camp consisted of the Central Powers namely Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. They formed the Triple Alliance in 1882.
  2. The other camp consisted of France and Russia. Their alliance was formed in 1894 with the promise of mutual help if Germany attacked either of them.
  • The Anglo-Japanese alliance was signed in 1902.
  • In 1904 Entente Cordiale was signed between France and Britain.
  • Finally it led to the formation of Triple Entante of Britain, France and Russia.

Violent Forms of Nationalism:

  • England’s Jingoism, France’s Chauvinism and Germany’s Kultur were militant forms of nationalism, contributing decisively to the outbreak of war.

Aggressive attitude of Germany

  • Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany was ruthlessly assertive and aggressive.
  • Germany’s aggressive diplomacy and rapid building of naval bases convinced Britain that a German navy could be directed only against her.

Imperial power politics in the Balkans:

  • The Young Turk Revolution of 1908, provided both Austria and Russia with the opportunity to resume their activities in the Balkans.
  • Austria and Russia met and agreed that Austria should annex Bosnia and Herzegovina. This aroused intense opposition from Serbia. Germany gave Austria firm support.
  • The enmity between Austria and Serbia led to the outbreak of war in 1914.

The Balkan wars:

  • The Balkans is a region in South – Eastern Europe between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
  • The problem of the exact distribution of the conquered territories arose.
  • According to the Treaty of London signed in May 1913 the new state of Albania was created and the other Balkan states divided up Macedonia between them.
  • The division of Macedonia, however, did not satisfy Bulgaria. Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece. But Bulgaria was easily defeated. The second Balkan War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Bucharest in August 1913.

Immediate cause:

  • The climax to these events in the Balkans occurred in Serajevo in Bosnia. On 28 June 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria- Hungary, was assassinated by Princip, a Bosnian Serb..
  • The German army which was planning a war against both France and Russia wanted to use the occasion to its advantage.
  • The German violation of Belgian neutrality forced Britain to enter war.

2. Highlight the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles relating to Germany.

  • Germany was found guilty of starting the War and therefore was to pay the reparations for the losses suffered. The Reparation Commission set up for deciding the compensation decided on 6,600 million pounds to be paid in instalments. All Central Powers were directed to pay War indemnity.
  • The German army was to be limited to 100,000 men. A small navy was allowed, but there were to be no Submarines and no Air force.
  • The union of Austria and Germany was forbidden and Germany was to acknowledge and respect the independence of Austria.
  • Germany was forced to give up all the rights and titles over her overseas possessions to the allies. All German colonies became mandated territories under the League of Nations.
  • Germany was forced to revoke the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia and Bucharest with Bulgaria.
  • Alsace – Lorraine was returned to France.
  • The former Russian territories of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were to be independent.
  • Poland was recreated with a corridor to the Baltic containing the German port of Danzig which was to be a free city under the auspices of League of Nations.

3. Explain the course of the Russian Revolution under the leadership of Lenin.

  • The Soviet was dominated by Mensheviks and the minority Bolsheviks were timid and undecided. The situation changed with the arrival of Lenin.
  • When the revolution broke out Lenin was in Switzerland and he wanted continued revolution.
  • His slogan of “All power to the Soviets” soon won over the workers’ leaders. The people were attracted by the slogan of “Breed, Peace and Land”.
  • The provisional government made two grave mistakes.
  • It postponed a decision on the demand for the redistribution of land.
  • Government decided to continue with the war.
  • Frustrated peasant soldiers deserted their posts and joined those who had restored to land grabbing. This intensified the rising in Petrograd led by Bolsheviks.
  • The government banned Pravda and arrested all Bolsheviks.
  • Trotsky was also arrested.
  • Kerensky became Prime Minister leading a new coalition of liberals and moderate socialists.
  • Faced with an attempted coup Kerensky tried in September to dismiss both the government and Soviet. His attempt was frustrated by the soviet and by the Bolsheviks.

Take over by the Bolshevik party under Lenin’s leadership

  • In October Lenin persuaded the Bolshevik Central Committee to decide on immediate revolution.
  • Trotsky prepared a detailed plan. On 7 November the key government buildings, including the Winter Palace, the Prime Minister’s head quarters were seized by armed factory workers and revolutionary troops.
  • On 8 November 1917 a new communist government was in office in Russia. Its head this time was Lenin.
  • The Bolshevik party was renamed the Russian Communist party.
  • Lenin thought that the most important factor for the fall of provisional government was its failure to withdraw from world war.
  • So Lenin immediately withdrew from world war.
  • Lenin concentrated on the formation of new government.

4. Estimate the work done by the League of Nations, pointing out the reasons for its failure.

  • The League was called in to settle a number of disputes between 1920 and 1925.
  • The League was successful in three issues.
  • In 1920 a dispute arose between Sweden and Finland over the sovereignty of the Aaland Islands situated between Finland’s west coast and Sweden’s east coast. The League ruled that the islands should go to Finland.
  • In the following year the League was asked to settle the frontier between Poland and Germany in Upper Silesia. It was successfully resolved by the League.
  • The Third dispute was between Greece and Bulgaria in 1925. Greece invaded Bulgaria, and the League ordered a ceasefire. After investigation it blamed Greece and decided that Greece was to pay reparations.
  • Thus the League had been successful until signing of the Locarno Treaty in 1925.
  • By this treaty, Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in Western Europe.
  • Thereafter Germany joined the League and was given a permanent seat on the Council.

Reason for its failure:

  • The league appeared to be an organisation of the victorious in the First World War.
  • Though it had a worldwide membership, it became very much the centre of European diplomacy.
  • The unanimity of members was required for all its decisions on political issues.
  • Since it lacked the military power of its own, it could not enforce its decisions.
  • The founders of this peace organization underestimated the potential of nationalism.
  • The principle of “collective security’ could not be applied in actual practice.
  • Italy, Japan and Germany, headed by dictators, refused to be bound by the orders of the League.
  • But Britain and France were not enthusiastic supporters of the League.
  • The league was the brainchild of Wilson. But he could not even convince his country to join the League.

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